I examine the relation between sensation and discursive thought (dianoia) in Plato, Plotinus, and Proclus. In Theaetetus, a soul whose highest faculty was sensation would have no unified experience of the sensible world, lacking universal ideas to give order to the sensible flux. It is implied that such universals are grasped by the soul's thinking. In Plotinus the soul is not passive when it senses the world, but as the logos of all things it thinks the world through its own forms. Proclus argues against the derivation of universal logoi from the senses, which alone can't make the sensible world comprehensible. At most they give a record of the original sense-impression in its particularity. The soul's own projected logoi give the sensible world stability. For Proclus, bare sensation does not depend on thought, but a unified experience of the sense-world depends on its paradigmatic logoi in our souls.
The aeronautics industry is looking for ice protection systems consuming less energy. Electromechanical and especially piezoelectric solutions are a promising area of research for reducing average consumptions. This article provides an analytical model
of a simple structure to assess the power and voltage required to obtain the delamination of the accumulated layer of ice at the support/ice interface. This model also allows analyzing the impact of the resonance frequencies used for supplying piezoelectric actuators on the tensile stress into PZT materials. Finally, this article assesses the effect of different ice
- phobic coatings combined with piezoelectric ice protection systems.
Experimental measurements of ice adhesion for different ice - phobic coatings allow evaluating the shear stress at which ice is detached from the surface. These results are then used to estimate - thanks to the proposed analytical model
- the additional gain of power that would be provided by the use of such coatings.
A variable diffraction efficiency phase mask is produced by focused ion beam, implanting a grating pattern into a fused SiO
2 substrate with a 100-nm-diam, 200keV Si beam. The substrate is prepared by cleaning and coating with a 20-nm-thick film of Al to dissipate the ion charge. The pattern consists of 930 lines, each 80μm long, at a pitch of 1.075μm, to obtain a 1-mm-long grating. The substrate is wet etched in a 1M% HF solution for about 45min to produce a phase mask with the desired diffraction efficiency. This phase mask is used to photoimprint Bragg gratings into standard hydrogenated single-mode telecommunication fibers using 193nm light from an ArF laser.
Frost cracking, the breakdown of rock by freezing, is one of the most important mechanical weathering processes acting on Earth's surface. Insights on the mechanisms driving frost cracking stem mainly from laboratory and theoretical studies. Transferring insights from such studies to natural conditions, involving jointed bedrock and heterogeneous thermal and hydrological properties, is a major challenge. We address this problem with simultaneous in situ measurements of acoustic emissions, used as proxy of rock damage, and rock temperature/moisture content. The 1 year data set acquired in an Alpine rock wall shows that (1) liquid water content has an important impact on freezing-induced rock damage, (2) sustained freezing can yield much stronger damage than repeated freeze-thaw cycling, and (3) that frost cracking occurs over the full range of temperatures measured extending from 0 down to -15°C. These new measurements yield a slightly different picture than previous field studies where ice segregation appears to play an important role. Key PointsRock liquid water content has an important impact on the freezing-induced damageSustained freezing can yield stronger damage than repeated freeze-thaw cyclingFrost cracking occurs on a wide range of temperatures extending from 0 to -15C
Phosphate glass samples doped with silver ions through a Na+-Ag+ ion-exchange process were treated in a hydrogen atmosphere at temperatures near 430 °C for durations ranging from 4 to 5 h. Such treatment causes metallic silver precipitation at the surface as well as nanoclustering of silver atoms under the surface under conditions very similar to those used for silicate glasses. The presence of silver clusters resulted in a characteristic coloring of the glass and was verified by the observation of a plasmon resonance peak near 410-420 nm in the absorption spectra. Applying a DC voltage between 1.4 and 2 kV at temperatures between 120 and 130 °C led to dissolution of the clusters in the area under the positive electrode, thereby bleaching the glass color. The use of a patterned doped-silicon electrode further led to the formation of a 300 nm thick surface relief on the glass surface and of a volume complex permittivity grating extending at least 4 μm under the surface. Such volume complex refractive index gratings may find applications in passive or active (laser) photonic devices in rare-earth doped phosphate glasses, where conventional bulk grating formation techniques have limited applicability.
Germanium ions have been implanted in fused silica using ion beams having energies of 3 and 5 MeV and doses ranging from 1×1012 to 5×1014 ions/cm2. For wavelengths shorter than 400 nm, the optical absorption increases strongly with two absorption bands appearing at 244 and 212 nm. The ion-induced optical absorption can be bleached almost completely by irradiation with 249 nm excimer laser light. Ion implantation also increases the refractive index of silica near the substrate surface. At 632.8 nm a refractive index increase of more than 10-2 has been measured. This decreases by 4×10-3 upon bleaching with 249 nm light.
We have studied optical changes induced by ArF (6.4 eV/193 nm) excimer laser light illumination of high purity SiO2 implanted with Si2+ (5 MeV) at a fluence of 1015 ions/cm2. Optical absorption was measured from 3 eV (400 nm) to 8 eV (155 nm) and showed evidence of several well-defined absorption bands. A correlation in the bleaching behavior appears to exist between the so-called D band (located at 7.15 eV) and the well-known B2α band which is attributed to oxygen vacancies. Changes in the refractive index as a function of ArF illumination were measured and found to be in good quantitative agreement with a Kramers-Kronig analysis of the optical absorption data.