N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamatergic receptors that consist of subunit variants GluN2A, GluN2B, and GluN2D. The superficial dorsal horn (SDH) is a critical site for nociceptive signaling; however, the expression of GluN2 subunits in the SDH remains unknown across sex and species. We used immunohistochemistry to identify the expression of GluN2 subunits in the SDH in rat and human adult spinal cord tissue across sex. We identified an enhanced GluN2 subunit expression in the SDH of rats and humans across sexes. GluN2A expression showed diffuse expression in juvenile rats; however, expression becomes localized to the SDH into adulthood. We also found that GluN2 subunits are preferentially expressed in the lateral SDH of adult rats; however, GluN2 subunit expression was uniform across the mediolateral axis in humans. Therefore, NMDAR subunit distribution in the dorsal horn appears to be relatively conserved across species and sex but diverges across postnatal development in rats.
Application Programming Interface(API) form an important part of software development. Eye tracking is an interesting and emerging field which is gaining wide popularity. The goal of the thesis is to collect and utilize eye tracking data to better understand how software developers summarize code. We perform a study that measures the effects of complex information sources on summarization tasks. In this work, we conduct a controlled experiment with 12 professional and student software developers to better understand how they perform code summarization tasks. These tasks aimed at summarizing a set of APIs based on source code, Stack Overflow, Bugzilla, or a combination of them. We used iTrace, a plugin for Eclipse, to record the developers' eye movements.
In Canada, residential buildings account for 16.7% of the total secondary energy end use and 12.7% of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Of these percentages, space heating and cooling account for about two-thirds of the total. As buildings are being built to higher standards, an air-tight, resilient, and thermally efficient building enclosure could be used to meet the targeted energy efficiency in new and retrofit construction. The research program was aimed at the use of vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) encapsulated within expanded polystyrene (EPS) board to form an exterior insulation system for use in new and retrofit construction nationwide. The program utilized experimental and numerical methods to evaluate the insulation system under steady-state thermal and transient hygrothermal conditions. The experimental study was split into two categories: steady-state thermal conductivity testing and in-situ hygrothermal monitoring. The steady-state testing, performed with a guarded hot-box at Carleton University, found that a 200 mm by 300 mm (8" x 12") VIP in the exterior insulation with a 1:1 VIP to EPS insulated area ratio on a code-built wood-frame wall would have an effective thermal resistance of R-5.1 to R-6.3 m2K/W. It was observed after the in-situ monitoring, performed at CanmetENERGY-Ottawa, that the backer material for the VIP-insulated system did not affect the long-term potential for mould growth or moisture-related damage in the assembly. The numerical study was performed using WUFI Pro 6.1 and WUFI 2D. The hygrothermal model was validated using the in-situ monitored data from 2016 to 2020 for Ottawa, CA. A methodology to model VIP insulated wall assemblies for building envelope retrofits was presented and performed in multiple cities across Canada. It was observed that masonry clad buildings (e.g., brick veneer) and wet climates (e.g., Vancouver and St. John's) had a higher potential to experience mould growth in new and retrofit buildings, for a similar envelope construction in a dryer climate. Finally, a screening study of eleven simulation inputs was performed using WUFI Pro 6.1 by following the Morris Method, a One-At-a-Time (OAT) screening procedure that compares the standard deviation and mean of the peak mould index.
This thesis positions itself around the opposing forces of architectural normativity and queer spatial production. It investigates heteronormativity and its spatial manifestations, in order to engage in the practice of queering space as an act of resistance. By researching the heteronormative order, and typologies such as the public toilet and the private home, it seeks to demonstrate architecture's complicity in the process of othering queer bodies. Applying a norm-critical perspective to spatial phenomena, it encourages architects to divest from contributing to this form of spatial violence. Next, it explores the act of queering as a contestation of the normative order through design. Continuing to investigate various facets of heteronormative spatial production, six design explorations consider the body through a multi-scalar approach. As the site where queerness is initially produced, the body is where all contestations must begin. Throughout the whole document, this thesis seeks to question, reveal, subvert, and transform.
This thesis investigates two key areas of northern energy planning through mathematical modelling. Firstly, a predictive machine learning model is developed to estimate stream velocity, a key variable for hydrokinetic power assessment. A generalizable Random Forest model, trained on 4,313 observations with novel geometric parameters, predicts stream velocity with a mean absolute percent error of 24%. This model improves on existing models, which require field data collection or were incompatible with smaller streams suitable for community-level energy planning. Secondly, a new, multi-phase, mixed integer linear programming generation expansion planning model for a comprehensive community energy system is developed which meets both thermal and electricity demand through a single electric load profile. An optimal investment plan consists of wind, solar, and battery storage, at an annualized cost of $13,525. A 20-kW wind turbine was found to lower the cost by 24% compared to using commercially available 100-kW wind turbines.
Migratory shorebirds populations are adversely affected by climate change and loss of habitat thus careful monitoring of their populations is important for early detection of population loss. Current counting methods generally rely on intrusive and time-consuming manual identification. This work is part of a larger project to develop automated classification and counting methods using a remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS). In addition to the use of RPAS, this work will also investigate if near-infrared (NIR) imaging captured by the RPAS yields detection improvements. Healthy vegetation reflects NIR wavelengths of light which can potentially create a greater contrast between an object and the surrounding vegetation. Pre-processing NIR raw images to enhance the contrast between vegetation and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) to improve object detection using the convolutional neural network (CNN) YOLOv4-Tiny have been investigated in this study.
This thesis provides an analysis of the morphosyntactic phenomenon, long-distance agreement (LDA), using the emerging Lexical-Realizational Functional Grammar (LRFG) framework. This project aims to illustrate that LDA requires the application of LRFG to explain the feature distribution that has been interpreted as such. I look at two cases that have been described as LDA in Ojibwe and Hindi-Urdu, and argue that neither operation is LDA. In Ojibwe, I analyze feature mirroring between the matrix verb and embedded clause, and show that this is in fact anaphoric agreement with the topic of the antecedent, that is conditioned by the adjunct. In Hindi-Urdu, I illustrate that this apparent LDA is not occurring with a true embedded clause, and is therefore not cross-clausal. I build on a previous observation of LDA, and show that restructuring verbs create a complex predicate, and follows the rules of simple agreement.
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an orexigenic neuropeptide that acts through its receptor (MCHR1) to promote positive energy balance. MCH can inhibit dopamine release from the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and a hyperdopaminergic state underlies hyperactivity in animals lacking MCH or MCHR1. It is not known if the inhibitory effect of MCH on dopaminergic tone could be due to direct regulation of dopaminergic VTA neurons. We used a combination of molecular, neuroanatomical, and electrophysiological techniques to assess MCHR1 expression and activation in the VTA. We detected MCH projections to the VTA and, MCHR1 expression on dopaminergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic VTA neurons, demonstrating potential sites of MCH-release and action, respectively. Furthermore, MCHR1 activation may regulate dopamine release by directly inhibiting dopaminergic VTA neurons, and by disinhibiting glutamatergic afferents to dopaminergic VTA neurons. These results signify that the VTA is a novel target for MCH-mediated physiology.
Noticeable improvements in processor performance have been achieved by researching programming models, control flow parallelization, general architecture, memory access, and code compilation . In this thesis, we seek to improve general processing by applying a many-core message passing (MPMC) architecture with a novel Asynchronous Graph Programming model (AGP). AGP abstracts higher-level languages into a graph of single instructions providing very high levels of parallelism and asynchronicity. The MPMC architecture utilizes a novel method of segmenting a graph among cores in tandem with the many-core model to exploit AGPs parallelism. We evaluate the MPMC architecture by implementing a functional simulation that, although incapable of providing empirical measurements, provides an an efficient method of evaluation that helps accelerate the development cycle. We found that the MPMC architecture can reach a 97% improvement in execution time from a single-core configuration, with room to improve given more cores and better node allocation strategies
The thesis will analyze the "foreign agents" legislation adopted in the Russian Federation. The analysis will be carried out at the intersection of political and legal realms. The thesis will aim to posit the laws within the theoretical framework of "authoritarian legality" and the "dual state" system introduced by Schmitt and Fraenkel, simultaneously exploring the law's instrumental role in contemporary Russia. The thesis's legal part will explore existing regulations and the legal repercussions of the "foreign agent" designation. It will also be aimed at comparing the "foreign agents" legislation's provisions with its United States counterpart and the newly adopted domestic legislation of 2022. The thesis's empirical part will focus on the covert consequences of the "foreign agent" designation and the "survival strategies" adopted by designated persons to maintain their functioning. Specific attention will be paid to the "International Memorial" case as an overtly politicized example of the legislation's usage.