Germanium ions have been implanted in fused silica using ion beams having energies of 3 and 5 MeV and doses ranging from 1×1012 to 5×1014 ions/cm2. For wavelengths shorter than 400 nm, the optical absorption increases strongly with two absorption bands appearing at 244 and 212 nm. The ion-induced optical absorption can be bleached almost completely by irradiation with 249 nm excimer laser light. Ion implantation also increases the refractive index of silica near the substrate surface. At 632.8 nm a refractive index increase of more than 10-2 has been measured. This decreases by 4×10-3 upon bleaching with 249 nm light.
We have studied optical changes induced by ArF (6.4 eV/193 nm) excimer laser light illumination of high purity SiO2 implanted with Si2+ (5 MeV) at a fluence of 1015 ions/cm2. Optical absorption was measured from 3 eV (400 nm) to 8 eV (155 nm) and showed evidence of several well-defined absorption bands. A correlation in the bleaching behavior appears to exist between the so-called D band (located at 7.15 eV) and the well-known B2α band which is attributed to oxygen vacancies. Changes in the refractive index as a function of ArF illumination were measured and found to be in good quantitative agreement with a Kramers-Kronig analysis of the optical absorption data.
A two-step double ion-exchange process is employed to produce dual-core waveguides in glass. First, potassium ion exchange is carried out at 400°C. Then, silver ion exchange is performed at 300°C. The fabricated waveguides have low losses, large single-mode regions, and more symmetrical profiles than single ion-exchanged waveguides. Etched gratings are also made in dual-core waveguides. Very high efficiencies are demonstrated in these waveguides.
A fiber twist sensor based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of an Au-coated tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is proposed. The SPR response to the twist effect on an Au-coated TFBG (immersing in distilled water) is studied theoretically and experimentally. The results show that the transmission power around the wavelength of SPR changes with the twist angle. For the twist ranging from 0° to 180° in clockwise or anti-clockwise directions, the proposed sensor shows sensitivities of 0.037 dBm/° (S-polarized) and 0.039 dBm/° (P-polarized), which are almost 7.5 times higher than that of the current similar existing twist sensor.
Phosphate glass samples doped with silver ions through a Na+-Ag+ ion-exchange process were treated in a hydrogen atmosphere at temperatures near 430 °C for durations ranging from 4 to 5 h. Such treatment causes metallic silver precipitation at the surface as well as nanoclustering of silver atoms under the surface under conditions very similar to those used for silicate glasses. The presence of silver clusters resulted in a characteristic coloring of the glass and was verified by the observation of a plasmon resonance peak near 410-420 nm in the absorption spectra. Applying a DC voltage between 1.4 and 2 kV at temperatures between 120 and 130 °C led to dissolution of the clusters in the area under the positive electrode, thereby bleaching the glass color. The use of a patterned doped-silicon electrode further led to the formation of a 300 nm thick surface relief on the glass surface and of a volume complex permittivity grating extending at least 4 μm under the surface. Such volume complex refractive index gratings may find applications in passive or active (laser) photonic devices in rare-earth doped phosphate glasses, where conventional bulk grating formation techniques have limited applicability.
The aeronautics industry is looking for ice protection systems consuming less energy. Electromechanical and especially piezoelectric solutions are a promising area of research for reducing average consumptions. This article provides an analytical model
of a simple structure to assess the power and voltage required to obtain the delamination of the accumulated layer of ice at the support/ice interface. This model also allows analyzing the impact of the resonance frequencies used for supplying piezoelectric actuators on the tensile stress into PZT materials. Finally, this article assesses the effect of different ice
- phobic coatings combined with piezoelectric ice protection systems.
Experimental measurements of ice adhesion for different ice - phobic coatings allow evaluating the shear stress at which ice is detached from the surface. These results are then used to estimate - thanks to the proposed analytical model
- the additional gain of power that would be provided by the use of such coatings.
A variable diffraction efficiency phase mask is produced by focused ion beam, implanting a grating pattern into a fused SiO
2 substrate with a 100-nm-diam, 200keV Si beam. The substrate is prepared by cleaning and coating with a 20-nm-thick film of Al to dissipate the ion charge. The pattern consists of 930 lines, each 80μm long, at a pitch of 1.075μm, to obtain a 1-mm-long grating. The substrate is wet etched in a 1M% HF solution for about 45min to produce a phase mask with the desired diffraction efficiency. This phase mask is used to photoimprint Bragg gratings into standard hydrogenated single-mode telecommunication fibers using 193nm light from an ArF laser.
Frost cracking, the breakdown of rock by freezing, is one of the most important mechanical weathering processes acting on Earth's surface. Insights on the mechanisms driving frost cracking stem mainly from laboratory and theoretical studies. Transferring insights from such studies to natural conditions, involving jointed bedrock and heterogeneous thermal and hydrological properties, is a major challenge. We address this problem with simultaneous in situ measurements of acoustic emissions, used as proxy of rock damage, and rock temperature/moisture content. The 1 year data set acquired in an Alpine rock wall shows that (1) liquid water content has an important impact on freezing-induced rock damage, (2) sustained freezing can yield much stronger damage than repeated freeze-thaw cycling, and (3) that frost cracking occurs over the full range of temperatures measured extending from 0 down to -15°C. These new measurements yield a slightly different picture than previous field studies where ice segregation appears to play an important role. Key PointsRock liquid water content has an important impact on the freezing-induced damageSustained freezing can yield stronger damage than repeated freeze-thaw cyclingFrost cracking occurs on a wide range of temperatures extending from 0 to -15C