Photobleaching of optical absorption bands in the 5 eV region and the creation of others at higher and lower energy have been examined in the case of ArF (6.4 eV) and KrF (5 eV) excimer laserirradiation of 3GeO2:97SiO2glasses. We report a difference in the transformation process of the neutral oxygen monovacancy and also of the germanium lone pair center (GLPC) into electron trap centers associated with fourfold coordinated Ge ions and Ge-E′ centers when we use one or the other laser. Correlations between absorption bands and electron spin resonance signals were made after different steps of laser irradiation. It was found that the KrF laser generates twice as many Ge-E′ centers as the ArF laser for the same dose of energy delivered. The main reason for this difference is found to be the more efficient bleaching of the GLPC (5.14 eV) by the KrF laser compared to that by the ArF laser.
Samples of synthetic fused silica have been implanted at room temperature with silicon ions of energy 1.5 MeV. Fluences ranged from 1011 to 1013 cm−2. Samples were probed using variable‐energy positron annihilation spectroscopy. The Doppler‐broadening S parameter corresponding to the implanted region decreased with increasing fluence and saturated at a fluence of 1013 cm−2. It is shown that the decrease in the S parameter is due to the suppression of positronium (Ps) which is formed in the preimplanted material, due to the competing process of implantation‐induced trapping of positrons. In order to satisfactorily model the positron data it was necessary to account for positron trapping due to defects created by both electronic and nuclear stopping of the implanted ions. Annealing of the 1013 cm−2 sample resulted in measurable recovery of the preimplanted S parameter spectrum at 350 °C and complete recovery to the preimplanted condition at 600 °C. Volume compaction was also observed afterimplantation. Upon annealing, the compaction was seen to decrease by 75%.
We address the problem of discovering routes in strongly connected planar geometric networks with directed links. Motivated by the necessity for establishing communication in wireless ad hoc networks in which the only information available to a vertex is its immediate neighborhood, we are considering routing algorithms that use the neighborhood information of a vertex for routing with constant memory only. We solve the problem for three types of directed planar geometric networks: Eulerian (in which every vertex has the same number of incoming and outgoing edges), Outerplanar (in which a single face contains all vertices of the network), and Strongly Face Connected, a new class of geometric networks that we define in the article, consisting of several faces, each face being a strongly connected outerplanar graph.
We test for the presence of time-varying parameters (TVP) in the long-run dynamics of energy prices for oil, natural gas and coal, within a standard class of mean-reverting models. We also propose residual-based diagnostic tests and examine out-of-sample forecasts. In-sample LR tests support the TVP model for coal and gas but not for oil, though companion diagnostics suggest that the model is too restrictive to conclusively fit the data. Out-of-sample analysis suggests a random-walk specification for oil price, and TVP models for both real-time forecasting in the case of gas and long-run forecasting in the case of coal.
This article draws on Margaret Radin's theorization of 'contested commodities' to explore the process whereby informal housing becomes formalized while also being shaped by legal regulation. In seeking to move once-informal housing into the domain of official legality, cities can seldom rely on a simple legal framework of private-law principles of property and contract. Instead, they face complex trade-offs between providing basic needs and affordability and meeting public-law norms around living standards, traditional neighbourhood feel and the environment. This article highlights these issues through an examination of the uneven process of legal formalization of basement apartments in Vancouver, Canada. We chose a lengthy period-from 1928 to 2009-to explore how basement apartments became a vital source of housing often at odds with city planning that has long favoured a low-density residential built form. We suggest that Radin's theoretical account makes it possible to link legalization and official market construction with two questions: whether to permit commodification and how to permit commodification. Real-world commodification processes-including legal sanction-reflect hybridization, pragmatic decision making and regulatory compromise. The resolution of questions concerning how to legalize commodification are also intertwined with processes of market expansion.
The new renewable fuels standard (RFS 2) aims to distinguish corn-ethanol that achieves a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared with gasoline. Field data from Kim et al. (2009) and from our own study suggest that geographic variability in the GHG emissions arising from corn production casts considerable doubt on the approach used in the RFS 2 to measure compliance with the 20% target. If regulators wish to require compliance of fuels with specific GHG emission reduction thresholds, then data from growing biomass should be disaggregated to a level that captures the level of variability in grain corn production and the application of life cycle assessment to biofuels should be modified to capture this variability.
In this special issue of Nova Religio four historians of medieval and early modern Christianities offer perspectives on basic conceptual frameworks widely employed in new religions studies, including modernization and secularization, radicalism/violent radicalization, and diversity/diversification. Together with a response essay by J. Gordon Melton, these articles suggest strong possibilities for renewed and ongoing conversation between scholars of "old" and "new" religions. Unlike some early discussions, ours is not aimed simply at questioning the distinction between old and new religions itself. Rather, we think such conversation between scholarly fields holds the prospect of productive scholarly surprise and perspectival shifts, especially via the disciplinary practice of historiographical criticism.