The effective indices of the cladding modes of optical fibers depend on the refractive index of the medium surrounding the fiber. We show experimentally and theoretically that while cladding modes with similar effective indices normally have similar refractometric sensitivities, the addition of a 50 nm thick gold sheath enhances the sensitivity of some EH modes by more than one order of magnitude while nearly completely suppressing the sensitivity of neighbouring HE modes (by three orders of magnitude, down to insignificant levels). A differential sensitivity of ∼1000 nm/(refractive index unit) is experimentally reported between adjacent EH and HE grating resonances.
A photolithographic method is described for fabricating refractive index Bragg gratings in photosensitive optical fiber by using a special phase mask grating made of silica glass. A KrF excimer laser beam (249 nm) at normal incidence is modulated spatially by the phase mask grating. The diffracted light, which forms a periodic, high-contrast intensity pattern with half the phase mask grating pitch, photoimprints a refractive index modulation into the core of photosensitive fiber placed behind, in proximity, and parallel, to the mask; the phase mask grating striations are oriented normal to the fiber axis. This method of fabricating in-fiber Bragg gratings is flexible, simple to use, results in reduced mechanical sensitivity of the grating writing apparatus and is functional even with low spatial and temporal coherence laser sources.
Anomaly detection involves identifying observations that deviate from the normal behavior of a system. One of the ways to achieve this is by identifying the phenomena that characterize "normal" observations. Subsequently, based on the characteristics of data learned from the normal observations, new observations are classified as being either normal or not. Most state-of-the-art approaches, especially those which belong to the family parameterized statistical schemes, work under the assumption that the underlying distributions of the observations are stationary. That is, they assume that the distributions that are learned during the training (or learning) phase, though unknown, are not time-varying. They further assume that the same distributions are relevant even as new observations are encountered. Although such a " stationarity" assumption is relevant for many applications, there are some anomaly detection problems where stationarity cannot be assumed. For example, in network monitoring, the patterns which are learned to represent normal behavior may change over time due to several factors such as network infrastructure expansion, new services, growth of user population, etc. Similarly, in meteorology, identifying anomalous temperature patterns involves taking into account seasonal changes of normal observations. Detecting anomalies or outliers under these circumstances introduces several challenges. Indeed, the ability to adapt to changes in non-stationary environments is necessary so that anomalous observations can be identified even with changes in what would otherwise be classified as normal behavior. In this paper, we proposed to apply weak estimation theory for anomaly detection in dynamic environments. In particular, we apply this theory to detect anomaly activities in system calls. Our experimental results demonstrate that our proposal is both feasible and effective for the detection of such anomalous activities.
The observation of four-wave mixing (FWM) in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) deposited around a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) has been demonstrated. A thin, floating SWCNT film is manually wrapped around the outer cladding of the fiber and FWM occurs between two core-guided laser signals by TFBG-induced interaction of the core mode and cladding modes. The effective nonlinear coefficient is calculated to be 1.8 10 3W -1Km -1. The wavelength of generated idlers is tunable with a range of 7.8 nm.
Two and a half hours of documentary footage from June 21, 2019, proceedings of the Senate when Bill C-81 received Royal Assent. The footage takes viewers behind the scenes with individuals closely involved with ensuring the Act received Royal Assent and features interviews with the Honourable Carla Qualtrough, Senator Jim Munson, James van Raalte, Sinead Tuite, Bill Adair, and Frank Folino.