Peer-to-peer networks are well known for file sharing between multiple computers. They establish virtual tunnels between computers to transfer data, but NATs makes it harder. A NAT, Network Address Translation, is a process which transforms private IP addresses, such as 192.168.2.1, into public addresses, such as 203.0.113.40. The idea is that multiple private addresses can hide behind a single public address and thus virtually enlarge the number of allocable public IP addresses. When an application in the local network establishes a connection to Internet, the packet passes through the NAT which adjusts the IP header and maps an external port to the computer which sent the request. When packets are received from the Internet by the NAT, they are forwarded to the internal host which is mapped to the port on which the packet was received, or dropped if no mapping exists. In this paper, we will introduce you to NAT and P2P, we will discuss the numerous ways NATs use to translate private IP addresses into public ones, we will discuss known techniques used to fix the problem and we will also present how popular peer-to-peer programs bypass NATs. This paper is written so anybody with a reasonable knowledge of networking would grasp the essentials. It is important to keep in mind that the traversal methods presented in this document work for UDP and TCP and require no manual configuration of the Network Address Translator itself.
Information management (IM) in the Canadian public sector is a complex area involving many professions such as librarians, archivists, records managers and information technology professionals. This exploratory study looks at the literature and experiential (qualitative) evidence from IM professionals in order to paint a picture of information management principles and practice in the Canadian federal government. Personal interviews were conducted with 20 librarians, information managers, records managers and other information professionals. Responses indicated that although the public sector has made tremendous strides in IM, there is often a gap between IM policy and practice as shown by inconsistencies and confusion in day to day operations compounded by the decimation of federal libraries (which are repositories of external as well as government information). The study also looks at roles of librarians and other IM professionals now and in the future. These professionals are well positioned to help close the gap between information policy and practice, moving forward toward more coordinated and integrated practices in information management as well as making information accessible and usable for their clients. Such functions aid the Canadian public sector in becoming a more effective knowledge organization.
The purpose of this working paper is to examine the role of Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) in higher education. This information will serve as a framework to inform a study of PLE use at Carleton University.
The purpose of this article is to improve understanding of internationalization as a strategic response to the catalysts of globalization and the knowledge society. The paper will attempt to critically identify and interpret how the aforementioned elements are being recontextualized and translated into responsive internationalization policies and systemic institutional change. The article takes a critical analysis approach on current internationalization efforts and provides a conceptual framework for developing a performance indicator set through a combination of institutional change theory (North 1990) and the Delta cycle for internationalization (Rumbley 2010). Recommendations on future research areas are made at the conclusion of the article.
Few people have bothered to defend the Majoritarian, winner take all character of the current Canadian electoral system. This parliamentary system has been in existence in the same form since the founding of the modern state in 1867. In these remarks, I offer a defense of Majoritarianism in the Canadian context when the alternative is some form of Proportional Representation. These remarks were prepared as an opening statement in a debate on electoral reform at a Faculty of Public Affairs 75th Anniversary conference at Carleton University, March 3, 2017.
The debate arose because of the Prime Minister's announced intention to replace the current system with some other during the election campaign that led to his victory in 2015. The debate occurred a few months after the release of a lengthy report on electoral reform by a special allparty committee of the House of Commons. A few weeks before the debate, the Prime Minister announced (independently of the debate, of course) that his government would no longer pursue electoral reform, perhaps because it looked like he would not be able to avoid a referendum, a process which is hard to control. In any event, and especially in the light of recent attempts to change the system both at the federal level and in some provinces, I think it is important for people to understand that the existing electoral system is a sensible one that likely will continue to serve us well.
The Canadian contribution and data set prepared as part of the Global Media and Internet Concentration (GMIC) project offers an independent academic, empirical and data-driven analysis of a deceptively simple yet profoundly important question: have telecom, media and internet markets become more concentrated over time, or less? Media Ownership and Concentration is presented from more than a dozen sectors of the telecom-media-internet industries, including film, music and book industries.
Canada’s coal-fired electricity regulations were published in 2012 and were the first federal regulations targeting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stationary sources. They have since been strengthened. This case study tells the policy story of how the regulations came about, and how in the space of 18 months the government’s regulatory approach evolved from one based on emissions intensity, to cap-and-trade, to capital stock turnover. It also tells the technical story of how a simple regulation based on the length of time a facility has to operate can still build in elements of trading and other flexibilities. It ends with some observations around lessons learned.
The pollution prevention provisions of Canada’s Fisheries Act, and the regulations made pursuant to those provisions, form the core of Canada’s federal water pollution regime. The Act applies nationally, and the sectoral regulations apply to an ever-expanding list of activities. The regime is actively enforced. The Canada’s Fisheries Act and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA) 1 together form the key underpinnings for Environment and Climate Change Canada’s pollution regulations. The Canada’s Fisheries Act also takes an unusual approach to pollution prevention: a general prohibition against pollution in the Act itself, while the regulations under the Act permit pollution under specified conditions.
The Canada’s Fisheries Act itself is over 150 years old. Where did the modern regime come from, and how did it take the form it has today? That is the subject matter of this Case Study.
Canadians living in rural communities are diverse, with individual communities defined by unique strengths and challenges that impact their health needs. Understanding rural health needs is a complex undertaking, with many challenges pertaining to engagement, research, and policy development. In order to address these challenges, it is imperative to understand the unique characteristics of rural communities as well as to ensure that the voices of rural and remote communities are prioritized in the development and implementation of rural health research programs and policy. Effective community engagement is essential in order to establish rural-normative programs and policies to improve the health of individuals living in rural, remote, and northern communities.
This report was informed by a community engagement workshop held in Golden Lake, Ontario in October 2019. Workshop attendees were comprised of residents from communities within the Madawaska Valley, community health care professionals, students and researchers from Carleton University in Ottawa, Ontario, and international researchers from Australia, Sweden, and Austria. The themes identified throughout the workshop included community strengths and initiatives that are working well, challenges and concerns faced by the community in the context of health, and suggestions to build on strengths and address challenges to improve the health of residents in the Madawaska Valley.
The small size coupled with remoteness of rural communities in Canada, Australia, and Sweden introduce challenges in accessing sufficient health services (1-3). The sparse health services in rural areas impose “the tyranny of distance” on rural and remote populations, necessitating lengthy travel times to receive care. Despite the increased challenges rural communities face, a dearth of research on rural health persists, particularly rural youth health (4,5).
A broad scoping review was undertaken to identify literature regarding rural youth health in Canada, Australia, and Sweden. The studies were coded according to
population focus, health focus, access, and general. The scoping review produced the Rural Youth Health Scoping Review Database, which provides an overview of the available research on rural youth health.
Rural and remote communities in both Australia and Canada have a higher burden of mental illness relative to their urban counterparts. Suicide rates, particularly, are higher across all age groups among men in rural communities as compared to metropolitan areas. Mental health issues are especially present in younger populations within these communities. Additionally, rural and remote communities tend to have higher proportions of Indigenous origin individuals, who face additional challenges and service barriers.
Rural and remote communities often encounter significant barriers to accessing mental health care. Individuals from these communities may be serviced solely by general health care providers that are not trained in mental health treatment. Travelling away from the community to alleviate this issue only further hinders accessibility as these individuals must travel larger distances to access specialized health services. When services are accessed, those from rural and remote communities are met with longer wait times than their urban counterparts. With no specialized treatment within the rural or remote community and inaccessible treatment outside the community, mental health care must shift to informal caregivers and the community as a whole.
Rural and remote communities are often not trained in mental health care. Interventions to address rural and remote youth mental health are needed to equip communities with the tools and skills to overcome access barriers and support community members. A review of recent literature related to rural and remote youth mental health interventions was conducted. The aim of the review is to characterize these mental health interventions in Australia and Canada and examine how they relate to youth.
Rural and remote communities in Australia and Canada experience barriers to accessing healthcare services (1). These barriers are especially pronounced when attempting to access more specialized health care services, such as paediatric (2–4). Both countries have implemented programs that aim to bridge the gap between rural communities and specialized healthcare. One such service is telepaediatrics.
Telepaediatrics, as part of telehealth, refers to any paediatric health-related service, network, or medical tool that transmits voice, data, images and information through telecommunication programs as part of providing health services (5–7). Telehealth services are ideal because they remove the need to relocate the rural patient to urban specialist sites (5–7).
In a WHO survey (2010), 60% of member countries had telehealth services in place but only 30% of these programs were implemented as part of routine care (8). Only 3 member countries had established telepaediatric services in place (8). No previous investigations examine the use of telehealth programs in urban versus rural settings (8). This review aims to identify the common barriers to telepaediatric services in rural Australia and Canada and outlines suggestions for future implementation.
Although health care is widely accessible in most developed countries, rural areas often struggle to adequately meet health care needs. Challenges in accessing and receiving adequate health care introduce large variations in disease levels, level of treatment, life expectancy,and overall health status for rural populations. eHealth, or electronic health,defined here as any electronic medium used to access health services,is a method used to bridge the gap between rural and urban centers to improve health care access. Including the above definition, eHealth also includes any technology designed to improve efficiencies and reduce costs in relation to health care. By providing a comprehensive overview of feedback from past interventions, policy-makers and program developers can develop strategies to improve the implementation and the use of eHealth technologies.
A review of recent literature related to eHealth technologies in Canada and Australia was conducted to better understand specific barriers and enablers for the uptake, acceptability, and success of eMental health programs.
It has been shown that the more “rural” or “remote” a community, the access to mental health services decreases. By mitigating barriers and promoting enablers, successful eMental health integration can increase access to mental health services for rural residents.
eMental health aims to bridge the gap between rural and urban mental health services by introducing electronic methods such as teleconferencing or videoconferencing for psychological services, virtual referral to psychiatrists, and sharing of electronic records. Successful integration of the technology remains a challenging task, with key actors, enablers, and barriers all influencing its success.
Rural and remote communities comprise around32% and 22% of Australia’s and Canada’s population. However, only 14% and 16% of family physicians in Australia and Canada, respectively, practice in these communities, resulting in a disproportion in access as compared with urban areas. An erosion of health services occurs when the number of physicians and other health care providers in a region is insufficient or these professionals are non-existent. Even when existing in a rural and remote region, providers are often overburdened. Inaccessibility to services in rural and remote communities’ results in poor health outcomes for all involved.
In Canada, 1 in 7 physicians will leave rural practice within two years. Strategies to address these turnover rates and the lessening interest in entering rural practice have focused on supporting recruitment and retention initiatives (RnR) to first bring physicians into rural practice and then encourage physicians to continue in rural practice beyond the short-term.
These programs have so far been insufficient or ineffective to address the lack of physicians in rural and remote areas. A review of recent literature related to RnR initiatives focused on rural physicians in Australia and Canada was conducted to investigate the strengths and limitations of initiatives. Further, this review critically examines the short and long-term feasibility of initiatives and develops a conceptual framework for designing or examining RnR initiatives.
This report was prepared for the Centre for Rural Medicine in Storuman, Sweden, as part of the Free Range international student exchange program.
See also Carleton's Spatial Determinants of Health Lab: https://carleton.ca/determinants
This report is provides guidance for research teams who are currently planning or are in the midst of
implementing an e-health intervention in rural communities. It describes the important factors which need to be considered when scaling - up a pilot project from one context to another, and demonstrates what a successful project needs to maximize the probability that it will achieve the
desired level of spread within the healthcare system.
This report can be used as a reference for people who wish to implement a novel intervention
into a new environment. Ideally it will be used in the early stages of intervention design to help researchers understand how a complex adaptive system functions and why navigating one is important for the outcome of their intervention. To begin, the report covers some basic terminology used when discussing complex adaptive systems and highlights the importance of working with these ideas moving forward.
Next, in-depth discussions about sense-making, leverage points, self-organization, and agent-based modelling provide evidence of the complexity of implementation. Finally, the principle of antifragility is discussed, as well as a tangible example of an intervention which has been designed with antifragility in mind. Finally, the conclusion summarizes the key findings of the report, offers future directions, and identifies some of the
Special thanks to the Toolkit researchers, including Tara McWhinney, Aaron Kozak and Evan Culic for their contributions towards building this toolkit. Cette publication est aussi disponible en français.
This Community-Based Research Toolkit is intended for community organizations trying to decide if they want to conduct research, and whether they should seek an academic partner to work with to conduct this research. This toolkit is designed as a project development checklist that acts as a guide for things to consider for community organizations conducting a research project.
More about the Centre for Studies on Poverty and Social Citizenship: https://carleton.ca/cspsc
See also: Canada's First National Housing Strategy - A Panel Discussion focusing on Canada’s first National Housing Strategy at the CASWE National Conference 2018
In 2016, with funding from the Ontario Trillium Foundation’s Seed Grant program, The Somali
Centre for Family Services of Ottawa (SCFS) invited Carleton University’s Centre for Studies on Poverty
and Social Citizenship (CSPSC) to partner on the completion of a needs assessment focusing on the
barriers faced by Somali youth in accessing post-secondary education, and employment training and
opportunities. In carrying out this research, the SCFS’s main objective was to address social and
economic exclusion locally by inviting Somali youth (age 19-30) from the Ottawa area to engage in the
conceptualization and design of resources that could best support their participation in educational and
This report was originally published on December 7, 2021. We re-released in on December 17, 2021 after cleaning up the text from an editorial point of view. This resulted in some stylistic changes but nothing substantive.
This report examines the development of the media economy over the past thirty-five years. Since beginning this project a decade ago, we have focused on analyzing a comprehensive as possible selection of the biggest telecoms, Internet and media industries (based on revenue) in Canada, including: mobile wireless and wireline telecoms; Internet access; cable, satellite & IPTV; broadcast television, specialty and pay television services as well as Internet-based video subscription and download services; radio; newspapers; magazines; music; Internet advertising; social media; operating systems; browsers, etc.
Part of a series from the CMCRP. Visit the CMCRP website for project details and background: http://www.cmcrp.org
Every year the Canadian Media Concentration Research Project puts out two reports on the state of the telecoms, internet, and media industries in Canada. This is the second installment in this year’s series. Whereas the first report in this series examines the growth, development and upheaval that are transforming the media industries in Canada, this report takes a step further by asking a deceptively simple but profoundly important question: have these industries—individually and collectively—become more or less concentrated over time? The report does so by examining the state of competition and concentration in the mobile wireless and wireline telecoms market, broadband internet access, cable, satellite & IPTV services, broadcast television and radio, specialty and pay television services, online video subscription and download services, newspapers, magazines, internet advertising, search engines, social media as well as mobile and desktop operating systems and browsers. This year’s report also adds significantly to our efforts last year to examine the dynamics of advertising spending across all media in Canada, i.e. TV, radio, online, newspapers, magazines and out-of-doors. As we noted in our first report, we have also significantly expanded our coverage by taking some preliminary steps to capture a broader range of audiovisual media services that are delivered over the internet.
Part of a series from the CMCRP - visit the CMCRP website for additional background. See also the related overview Poster - Canada’s Top Media, Internet & Telecom Companies by Market Share (2017) The workbook and reports were revised in early January 2019 to replace estimated revenue values for the mobile wireless, internet access and internet advertising markets with published final revenue figures from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) on December 21, 2018 and by the Internet Advertising Bureau of Canada on December 10, 2018.
This report examines the state of competition in the mobile wireless market, internet
access, broadcast, pay and streaming TV services, internet advertising, advertising
across all media, newspapers, browsers, online news sources, search, social media,
operating systems, etc. in Canada over the period from 1984 until 2017. We call the
sum-total of these media “the network media economy”. We then use two common
metrics—Concentration Ratios and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)—to determine
whether these markets—individually and collectively—are competitive or concentrated.
Part of a series from the CMCRP - visit the CMCRP website for additional background. The workbook and reports were revised in early January 2019 to replace estimated revenue values for the mobile wireless, internet access and internet advertising markets with published final revenue figures from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) on December 21, 2018 and by the Internet Advertising Bureau of Canada on December 10, 2018.
The report examines the development of the media economy over the past thirty-three years. We do so by examining a dozen or so of the biggest telecoms, internet and media industries in Canada, based on revenue. These include: mobile wireless and wireline telecoms; internet access; cable, satellite & IPTV; broad- cast, specialty, pay and over-the-top TV; radio; newspapers; magazines; music; and internet advertising. We call the total
of these sectors “the network media economy”. Our method is simple: we begin by collecting, organizing, and making available stand-alone data for each media industry individually. We then group related, comparable industry sectors into three higher level categories: the “network media” (e.g. mobile wireless, internet access, broadcast distribution), the “content media” (e.g. television, newspapers, magazines, etc.) and “internet media” (e.g. internet advertising, search, internet news sources). Ultimately, we combine them all together to get a bird’s-eye view of the network media economy. We call this the scaffolding approach.
Part of a series from the CMCRP. Visit the CMCRP website for project details and background: http://www.cmcrp.org
This report examines the development of the media economy over the past thirtyfour years. Since beginning this project nearly a decade ago, we have focused on as comprehensive as possible selection of the biggest telecoms, internet and media industries (based on revenue), including: mobile wireless and wireline telecoms; internet access; cable, satellite & IPTV; broadcast television, specialty and pay television services and over-the-internet video subscription and download services; radio; newspapers; magazines; music; internet advertising; social media; operating systems; browsers, etc.
This year, we have made some fairly dramatic changes in terms of what we cover, and the breadth of our analysis. For the first time, this report takes some preliminary steps to capture a broader range of audiovisual media services that are delivered over
the internet beyond online video subscription and download services and internet advertising, including: online gaming, app store and music downloads.
The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to massive rates of unemployment and greater uncertainty in the job market. There is a growing need for data-driven tools and analyses to better inform the public on trends within the job market. In particular, obtaining a “snapshot” of available employment opportunities mid-pandemic promises insights to inform policy and support retraining programs. In this work, we combine data scraped from the Canadian Job Bank and Numbeo globally crowd-sourced repository to explore the relationship between job postings during a global pandemic and Key Performance Indicators (e.g. quality of life index, cost of living) for major cities across Canada. This analysis aims to help Canadians make informed career decisions, collect a “snapshot” of the Canadian employment opportunities amid a pandemic, and inform job seekers in identifying the correct fit between the desired lifestyle of a city and their career. We collected a new high-quality dataset of job postings from jobbank.gc.ca obtained with the use of ethical web scraping and performed exploratory data analysis on this dataset to identify job opportunity trends. When optimizing for average salary of job openings with quality of life, affordability, cost of living, and traffic indices, it was found that Edmonton, AB consistently scores higher than the mean, and is therefore an attractive place to move. Furthermore, we identified optimal provinces to relocate to with respect to individual skill levels. It was determined that Ajax, Marathon, and Chapleau, ON are each attractive cities for IT professionals, construction workers, and healthcare workers respectively when maximizing average salary. Finally, we publicly release our scraped dataset as a mid-pandemic snapshot of Canadian employment opportunities and present a public web application that provides an interactive visual interface that summarizes our findings for the general public and the broader research community.
Water and Ice Research Lab at Carleton University investigating ice island drift and
deterioration in Eastern Canada for several years. As part of this on-going research, the WIRL is
interested in developing a numerical tool to understand the role of large scale fracture or
calving event in ice island deterioration. This technical manual is prepared to provide a step-bystep guidance on how the deterioration model can be developed using simple methodology
and procedure in commercial Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software package LS DYNA. The
manual demonstrates the procedure with example problems, and addresses various issues that
may encounter in future modelling. This manual will be updated with time.
Previous research has identified several likely causes of eligible non-participation in the Canada
Learning Bond (CLB), including awareness, financial exclusion, and administrative barriers.
This study expands on that research, with a particular focus on the role of tax-filing as an
administrative obstacle to accessing the CLB. I present results from an online survey of low and
modest income parents (n=466) conducted in 2021. We find that, even among parents reporting
they have received the CLB (46%), a majority (51%) report low confidence in their familiarity
with the program, and more than one in six (17%) are unaware of the need to file tax returns
to maintain eligibility for annual CLB payments. Self-reported regular tax-filing is associated
with a 59% increase in the probability of accessing the CLB, even when controlling for a range
of parental characteristics. This study confirms previous work by Harding and colleagues
(2019) that non-filing may explain some share of eligible non-participation in education savings
incentives. Tax-filing services may be an important pathway to improve CLB access. Low and
modest income parents show substantial diversity in their preferred filing methods and outreach
efforts cannot be concentrated in only one avenue if they are to be successful. The study also
tests a small ‘nudge’ to address gaps in awareness and finds that information-only approaches to
outreach are likely to have limited success, even with motivated populations.
Commissioned by: The School of Indigenous and Canadian Studies, Carleton University. Prepared by: Jo-Anne M. Lawless, PhD Student, School of Indigenous and Canadian Studies, Under the supervision of: Dr. Kahente Horn-Miller, Associate Professor
This history begins with an examination of Carleton's first acknowledgements of Indigenous peoples in their media offerings and course calendars, and follows the trajectory of academic and administrative initiatives in regard to Aboriginal programming, from the early 1940s to the present. While the report traces the ongoing efforts toward Indigenous inclusion at Carleton University, it is also a reflection of the contemporaneous social changes of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
The digital economy, which was once considered as a panacea, is becoming increasingly
viewed as a grand societal challenge – a problem that not only presents significant barriers to many
people but is also so complex that it cannot be tackled by any one single organization. Mangers
influence how the components of the global digital infrastructure, such as data analytics, artificial
intelligence, and robotics impact society. However, mitigating the broad-gauged impacts of the
digital economy, like its impact on the nature of work, would benefit from new ideas about
manger’s roles in the digital economy. Framed in a management learning perspective, this study
collates what we know, and what we need to know, about management and the digital economy.
Overall, this paper suggests that managers need to learn new habits of thought to build a more
balanced, equitable, and sustainable version of digital economy. Perspectives on how to design
management learning environments to help managers think of, then implement, a digital ecosystem
rather than a digital economy will contribute to ongoing debates about management learning that
will advance positive transformations of the nature of work.
This research project is an examination of change in the fundraising activities employed by small Canadian registered charities (defined as registered charities with total annual revenues under $100,000) over the ten year period from 2000 to 2009. Utilizing data from the Registered Charity Information Returns (T3010) filed by charities with the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA), the study provides a profile of fundraising methods used, examining trends in types and number of fundraising methods utilized over the ten year period. We analyze variation in terms of size, designation type (charitable organization/public foundation /private foundation), location (rural/urban), charitable activity (welfare, religion, education, health, benefit to the community, other), orientation (religious/secular), and geographic region (each province and territory, western Canada/central Canada/Maritimes/territories).
The term ‘fundraising methods’ refers to the tactics used by charities to generate current or future monies and gifts in kind to provide services to clients, fund research, and cover administrative costs. Under conditions of reduced financial support from government, fundraising is an important, even critical, source of revenue for charities. Equally important is access to accurate information on fundraising methods used by charities in Canada. This paper traces the evolution of fundraising data collected by Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) over the last ten years, compares definitions employed by CRA with examples drawn from the academic and practitioner literatures, and highlights methods not currently being tracked by the T3010 Registered Charity Information Return.
This paper presents selected preliminary results from a study of B2B e-commerce
adoption by Canadian manufacturing firms. The goal of the broad research project
IS to describe the behaviour of Canadian manufacturers with respect to adoption
of B2B technologies and to identify factors which distinguish adopters from non-adopters
of B2B. The study focuses on the organizational characteristics of
adopters of B2B e-commerce technologies and attempts to outline the features
which differentiate them from non-adopters. Preliminary analysis shows the
existence of three distinct B2B adopter types: non-adopters, partial-adopters and
full-adopters. Leadership related variables appear to be the most important
determinants of adoption.
This paper reviews major differences between the accounting regulatory systems in Canada and the United States. In the U.S., the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 governs responsibilities of management, auditors, and Boards of Directors related to internal control over financial reporting. In Canada, a series of Multilateral Instruments under provincial jurisdiction serves similar objectives. As compared to the U.S., the Canadian system is more decentralized and principles-based allowing a greater degree of responsibility to the accounting profession for standard setting and oversight. The Canadian approach has resulted in weaker regulation, slower implementation, and greater influence by the accounting profession. These findings imply that accounting regulations should be tailored to fit the political and institutional structures of the adopting country.
Each year the Canadian government allocates a significant amount of money for science and technology. A major portion of this allocation goes for R& D. In order to enjoy adequate return, technologies that are developed in Canadian federal labs need to be transferred to the public effectively. There are critical factors in technology transfer which play a key role in determining the effectiveness of this transfer process. This study examines the technical, organizational, and people factors which can enhance technology transfer from government laboratories.
Implementation of quality management practice in E-Commerce (EC) is a relatively new challenging area to researchers and managers. Proliferation of EC provides an opportunity to quality management gurus to reshape quality dimensions suitable for real sustainability, expansion, and success of EC. Based on the underpinning principles of Total Quality Management (TQM) and quality management practice this paper focuses on the quality dimensions required for launching a successful EC as the competitive edge in gaining market leadership. This article postulates a model to integrate quality management in EC.
Surveys of Australian consumers before and after French nuclear testing in the Pacific show clear evidence of negative responses of consumers to the 1995 testing. Although evaluations of French products did not decline, evaluations of France and the French did. However, by 2005 ratings of French products and France had more than recovered. A model of effects among country and product belief sets is proposed and tested. The model is strongly supported and helpful in understanding the process of image recover.
This paper applies attitude theory to assess the influence of beliefs and evaluations of Nepal with desired linkages and travel intentions. The main contribution is to connect TDI and PCI research by testing a general country image model in a tourism context. Attitude theory acts as the connection between the two fields.