Energy models are commonly used to examine the multitude of pathways to improve building performance. As presently practiced, a deterministic approach is used to evaluate incremental design improvements to achieve performance targets. However, significant insight can be gained by examining the implications of modeling assumptions using a probabilistic approach. Analyzing the effect of small perturbations on the inputs of energy and economic models can improve decision making and modeler confidence in building simulation results. This paper describes a reproducible methodology which AIDS modelers in identifying energy and economic uncertainties caused by variabilities in solar exposure. Using an optimization framework, uncertainty is quantified across the entire simulation solution space. This approach improves modeling outcomes by factoring in the effect of variability in assumptions and improves confidence in simulation results. The methodology is demonstrated using a net zero energy commercial office building case study.
This paper examines the role of affect in marketing positioning strategy and individual positioning judgements. We examine affect in both the marketing and positioning literatures and argue that vestiges of the dual mind perspective are alive and well in positioning. Viewing 'thinking' and 'feeling' as entirely separate (as in utilitarian vs. hedonic product distinctions) runs counter to advances in neuroscience and devalues individual differences and brain functioning. As a result of our own coding of positioning dimensions, we advocate for a greater understanding of the complex interplay between affect and cognition in positioning strategy and judgements.
Since the early 2000s the Internet has become particularly crucial for the global jihadist movement. Nowhere has the Internet been more important in the movement’s development than in the West. While dynamics differ from case to case, it is fair to state that almost all recent cases of radicalization in the West involve at least some digital footprint. Jihadists, whether structured groups or unaffiliated sympathizers, have long understood the importance of the Internet in general and social media, in particular. Zachary Chesser, one of the individuals studied in this report, fittingly describes social media as “simply the most dynamic and convenient form of media there is.” As the trend is likely to increase, understanding how individuals make the leap to actual militancy is critically important.
This study is based on the analysis of the online activities of seven individuals. They share several key traits. All seven were born or raised in the United States. All seven were active in online and offline jihadist scene around the same time (mid‐ to late 2000s and early 2010s). All seven were either convicted for terrorism‐related offenses (or, in the case of two of the seven, were killed in terrorism‐related incidents.)
The intended usefulness of this study is not in making the case for monitoring online social media for intelligence purpose—an effort for which authorities throughout the West need little encouragement. Rather, the report is meant to provide potentially useful pointers in the field of counter‐radicalization. Over the past ten years many Western countries have devised more or less extensive strategies aimed at preventing individuals from embracing radical ideas or de‐radicalizing (or favoring the disengagement) of committed militants. (Canada is also in the process of establishing its own counter‐radicalization strategy.)
The analysis of official development assistance has always struggled with the contradiction between its more altruistic motivations for global development and its easy adaptation as an instrument for the donor’s pursuit of self-interested foreign policy objectives. In the international system foreign aid may thus become a forum for both cooperative and competitive interactions between donors. This chapter explores the interdependence of aid by reviewing the literature on donor interdependence, with a particular focus on donor competition for influence in recipient states. We then present a simple theoretical framework to examine donor competition, and provide some preliminary empirical testing of resulting hypotheses. We conclude that while the evidence about competition is fixed, the behaviour of some donors is consistent with their pursuit of influence in certain recipient states.
A review of five major journals in the Management Information Systems (MIS) field reveals that the majority of research articles engaging with Critical Theory, from the period 1990 to 2001, are of a conceptual nature, focusing primarily on systems development. Two reasons are suggested for the comparatively low level of engagement with Critical Theory in empirical research efforts: lack of a critical theory method and reluctance to engage with the theory's emancipatory commitments. A critical theory method that encompasses both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods is advanced. In addition, a more practiceoriented way of thinking about emancipation is proposed.
The paper identifies the characteristics of firm activities that constitute its technology scanning dynamic capability, which enables the firm to translate information about customer needs into information about tangible ways to introduce new products and services to satisfy those needs. The ability to find a specific actionable way to address customer needs is proposed to be measured by a latent construct called technology scanning. Using the literature on marketing, innovation management, knowledge management, new product development, and economics, five dimensions are identified for a technology scanning scale. A strong presence of 'technology scanning' ensures that the firm's resources are targeted to find the solution of the problems that matters most, the ones that were identified as a consequence of high level of market orientation of the firm. This work would shed some light on how managers might solve the problems and needs of the customers identified through market orientation practices. When market orientation guides technology scanning activities, the outcomes are more desirable to the firm.
- Opportunity for on-site food production comes from public and political support for ‘local food’, combined with a shortage of land for new producers
- GIS study of Ontario healthcare properties shows 217 with more than one acre of arable land available, and 54 with more than five acres
- Case studies demonstrate the benefits of a ‘farmer’— independent, staff member or community group—and/or labour force dedicated to the project
- Initial and on-going viability correlates to the extent of institutional support, particularly staff time for project coordination
- Institutional motivations for on-site food production initiatives vary, include mental and physical therapeutic benefits
See more at the Project SOIL website.
In this study we will discuss the historical changes in the work and life relationship which resulted in development of new theories. After an introduction to work-life relationships, different theories of work and life are presented in the second section of this paper. These theories are categories intro three generations based on their characteristics in the historical evolution of work-life studies. In the third section measures of work and life spillovers are described. In section four, critiques of the current methodologies which is being used in the work and life studies are presented. Discussion section which is presented in following section includes some arguments regarding the ways to select the most appropriate theories for work-life studies. Also in this section some recommendations are presented for enhancing the commonly used methodologies of the research on work and life relationships. Finally, in the last section, some recommendations for future studies are presented.
This study uses theories of motivation to analyze how performance changes over the life of a contract. Utilizing performance data for professional basketball players in the NBA for three seasons, the results show that performance does change over the life of a contract. Factors affecting how much control a player has over his performance are found to be important in how the players' performance changes as the contract completion nears.
This study uses an exploratory qualitative design to examine the lived experience of one group of service users on community treatment orders (CTOs). The study was designed and completed by four graduate students at Carleton University School of Social Work.
Despite the unique features of CTO legislation in Ontario, many findings from this study are remarkably similar to findings of research conducted in other jurisdictions. What is unique in our findings is the lack of focus on the actual conditions and provision of the CTO. The issue for our participants was less about the CTO itself, and more about the labels, control and discrimination associated with severe mental illness.
Cette étude utilise un concept qualitatif et exploratoire pour examiner les expériences vécues d’un groupe qui utilise les ordonnances de traitement en milieu communautaire (OTMC). Cette étude a été designée et complétée par 4 étudiants de l’école de service social de l’université Carleton.
Malgré les nombreux aspects uniques de la loi gérant les OTMC de l’Ontario, plusieurs résultats de cette étude sont remarquablement similaires aux résultats découverts dans de différentes juridictions. L’élément unique de cette recherche est le manque de focus sur les conditions véritables et les provisions des OTMC. La problématique encourue par les participants n’était pas au sujet des OTMC en soi, mais plus tôt au sujet de l’étiquetage, du contrôle, et de la discrimination associé aux troubles de santé mentale sévères.
Managers are often measured against an ideal that is treated as a tangible object which is stable across generations. It is the contention of this paper that the ideal manager is, in fact, a social construct that is a product of the political and social context within which it exists. Different periods in time create unique typifications of the construct, and the ideal manager is not independent of its environment. The socially constructed nature of the ideal manager will be illustrated through the analysis of the construct at one specific point in time, the internal Cold War in the years following the Second World War and ending in 1960. While widely studied in most disciplines, the Cold War has been largely ignored in the management literature, and therefore provides us with a unique perspective from which to assess the impact of context on the standard to which managers are held.
This paper reviews major differences between the accounting regulatory systems in Canada and the United States. In the U.S., the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 governs responsibilities of management, auditors, and Boards of Directors related to internal control over financial reporting. In Canada, a series of Multilateral Instruments under provincial jurisdiction serves similar objectives. As compared to the U.S., the Canadian system is more decentralized and principles-based allowing a greater degree of responsibility to the accounting profession for standard setting and oversight. The Canadian approach has resulted in weaker regulation, slower implementation, and greater influence by the accounting profession. These findings imply that accounting regulations should be tailored to fit the political and institutional structures of the adopting country.
Commissioned by: The School of Indigenous and Canadian Studies, Carleton University. Prepared by: Jo-Anne M. Lawless, PhD Student, School of Indigenous and Canadian Studies, Under the supervision of: Dr. Kahente Horn-Miller, Associate Professor
This history begins with an examination of Carleton's first acknowledgements of Indigenous peoples in their media offerings and course calendars, and follows the trajectory of academic and administrative initiatives in regard to Aboriginal programming, from the early 1940s to the present. While the report traces the ongoing efforts toward Indigenous inclusion at Carleton University, it is also a reflection of the contemporaneous social changes of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
Water and Ice Research Lab at Carleton University investigating ice island drift and
deterioration in Eastern Canada for several years. As part of this on-going research, the WIRL is
interested in developing a numerical tool to understand the role of large scale fracture or
calving event in ice island deterioration. This technical manual is prepared to provide a step-bystep guidance on how the deterioration model can be developed using simple methodology
and procedure in commercial Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software package LS DYNA. The
manual demonstrates the procedure with example problems, and addresses various issues that
may encounter in future modelling. This manual will be updated with time.
Part of a series from the CMCRP - visit the CMCRP website for additional background. See also the related overview Poster - Canada’s Top Media, Internet & Telecom Companies by Market Share (2017) The workbook and reports were revised in early January 2019 to replace estimated revenue values for the mobile wireless, internet access and internet advertising markets with published final revenue figures from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) on December 21, 2018 and by the Internet Advertising Bureau of Canada on December 10, 2018.
This report examines the state of competition in the mobile wireless market, internet
access, broadcast, pay and streaming TV services, internet advertising, advertising
across all media, newspapers, browsers, online news sources, search, social media,
operating systems, etc. in Canada over the period from 1984 until 2017. We call the
sum-total of these media “the network media economy”. We then use two common
metrics—Concentration Ratios and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)—to determine
whether these markets—individually and collectively—are competitive or concentrated.
Part of a series from the CMCRP. Visit the CMCRP website for project details and background: http://www.cmcrp.org
Every year the Canadian Media Concentration Research Project puts out two reports on the state of the telecoms, internet, and media industries in Canada. This is the second installment in this year’s series. Whereas the first report in this series examines the growth, development and upheaval that are transforming the media industries in Canada, this report takes a step further by asking a deceptively simple but profoundly important question: have these industries—individually and collectively—become more or less concentrated over time? The report does so by examining the state of competition and concentration in the mobile wireless and wireline telecoms market, broadband internet access, cable, satellite & IPTV services, broadcast television and radio, specialty and pay television services, online video subscription and download services, newspapers, magazines, internet advertising, search engines, social media as well as mobile and desktop operating systems and browsers. This year’s report also adds significantly to our efforts last year to examine the dynamics of advertising spending across all media in Canada, i.e. TV, radio, online, newspapers, magazines and out-of-doors. As we noted in our first report, we have also significantly expanded our coverage by taking some preliminary steps to capture a broader range of audiovisual media services that are delivered over the internet.
More about the Centre for Studies on Poverty and Social Citizenship: https://carleton.ca/cspsc
See also: Canada's First National Housing Strategy - A Panel Discussion focusing on Canada’s first National Housing Strategy at the CASWE National Conference 2018
In 2016, with funding from the Ontario Trillium Foundation’s Seed Grant program, The Somali
Centre for Family Services of Ottawa (SCFS) invited Carleton University’s Centre for Studies on Poverty
and Social Citizenship (CSPSC) to partner on the completion of a needs assessment focusing on the
barriers faced by Somali youth in accessing post-secondary education, and employment training and
opportunities. In carrying out this research, the SCFS’s main objective was to address social and
economic exclusion locally by inviting Somali youth (age 19-30) from the Ottawa area to engage in the
conceptualization and design of resources that could best support their participation in educational and
Special thanks to the Toolkit researchers, including Tara McWhinney, Aaron Kozak and Evan Culic for their contributions towards building this toolkit. Cette publication est aussi disponible en français.
This Community-Based Research Toolkit is intended for community organizations trying to decide if they want to conduct research, and whether they should seek an academic partner to work with to conduct this research. This toolkit is designed as a project development checklist that acts as a guide for things to consider for community organizations conducting a research project.
Rural and remote communities comprise around32% and 22% of Australia’s and Canada’s population. However, only 14% and 16% of family physicians in Australia and Canada, respectively, practice in these communities, resulting in a disproportion in access as compared with urban areas. An erosion of health services occurs when the number of physicians and other health care providers in a region is insufficient or these professionals are non-existent. Even when existing in a rural and remote region, providers are often overburdened. Inaccessibility to services in rural and remote communities’ results in poor health outcomes for all involved.
In Canada, 1 in 7 physicians will leave rural practice within two years. Strategies to address these turnover rates and the lessening interest in entering rural practice have focused on supporting recruitment and retention initiatives (RnR) to first bring physicians into rural practice and then encourage physicians to continue in rural practice beyond the short-term.
These programs have so far been insufficient or ineffective to address the lack of physicians in rural and remote areas. A review of recent literature related to RnR initiatives focused on rural physicians in Australia and Canada was conducted to investigate the strengths and limitations of initiatives. Further, this review critically examines the short and long-term feasibility of initiatives and develops a conceptual framework for designing or examining RnR initiatives.
A review of recent literature related to eHealth technologies in Canada and Australia was conducted to better understand specific barriers and enablers for the uptake, acceptability, and success of eMental health programs.
It has been shown that the more “rural” or “remote” a community, the access to mental health services decreases. By mitigating barriers and promoting enablers, successful eMental health integration can increase access to mental health services for rural residents.
eMental health aims to bridge the gap between rural and urban mental health services by introducing electronic methods such as teleconferencing or videoconferencing for psychological services, virtual referral to psychiatrists, and sharing of electronic records. Successful integration of the technology remains a challenging task, with key actors, enablers, and barriers all influencing its success.
Although health care is widely accessible in most developed countries, rural areas often struggle to adequately meet health care needs. Challenges in accessing and receiving adequate health care introduce large variations in disease levels, level of treatment, life expectancy,and overall health status for rural populations. eHealth, or electronic health,defined here as any electronic medium used to access health services,is a method used to bridge the gap between rural and urban centers to improve health care access. Including the above definition, eHealth also includes any technology designed to improve efficiencies and reduce costs in relation to health care. By providing a comprehensive overview of feedback from past interventions, policy-makers and program developers can develop strategies to improve the implementation and the use of eHealth technologies.
Rural and remote communities in both Australia and Canada have a higher burden of mental illness relative to their urban counterparts. Suicide rates, particularly, are higher across all age groups among men in rural communities as compared to metropolitan areas. Mental health issues are especially present in younger populations within these communities. Additionally, rural and remote communities tend to have higher proportions of Indigenous origin individuals, who face additional challenges and service barriers.
Rural and remote communities often encounter significant barriers to accessing mental health care. Individuals from these communities may be serviced solely by general health care providers that are not trained in mental health treatment. Travelling away from the community to alleviate this issue only further hinders accessibility as these individuals must travel larger distances to access specialized health services. When services are accessed, those from rural and remote communities are met with longer wait times than their urban counterparts. With no specialized treatment within the rural or remote community and inaccessible treatment outside the community, mental health care must shift to informal caregivers and the community as a whole.
Rural and remote communities are often not trained in mental health care. Interventions to address rural and remote youth mental health are needed to equip communities with the tools and skills to overcome access barriers and support community members. A review of recent literature related to rural and remote youth mental health interventions was conducted. The aim of the review is to characterize these mental health interventions in Australia and Canada and examine how they relate to youth.
Rural and remote communities in Australia and Canada experience barriers to accessing healthcare services (1). These barriers are especially pronounced when attempting to access more specialized health care services, such as paediatric (2–4). Both countries have implemented programs that aim to bridge the gap between rural communities and specialized healthcare. One such service is telepaediatrics.
Telepaediatrics, as part of telehealth, refers to any paediatric health-related service, network, or medical tool that transmits voice, data, images and information through telecommunication programs as part of providing health services (5–7). Telehealth services are ideal because they remove the need to relocate the rural patient to urban specialist sites (5–7).
In a WHO survey (2010), 60% of member countries had telehealth services in place but only 30% of these programs were implemented as part of routine care (8). Only 3 member countries had established telepaediatric services in place (8). No previous investigations examine the use of telehealth programs in urban versus rural settings (8). This review aims to identify the common barriers to telepaediatric services in rural Australia and Canada and outlines suggestions for future implementation.
The small size coupled with remoteness of rural communities in Canada, Australia, and Sweden introduce challenges in accessing sufficient health services (1-3). The sparse health services in rural areas impose “the tyranny of distance” on rural and remote populations, necessitating lengthy travel times to receive care. Despite the increased challenges rural communities face, a dearth of research on rural health persists, particularly rural youth health (4,5).
A broad scoping review was undertaken to identify literature regarding rural youth health in Canada, Australia, and Sweden. The studies were coded according to
population focus, health focus, access, and general. The scoping review produced the Rural Youth Health Scoping Review Database, which provides an overview of the available research on rural youth health.