Energy models are commonly used to examine the multitude of pathways to improve building performance. As presently practiced, a deterministic approach is used to evaluate incremental design improvements to achieve performance targets. However, significant insight can be gained by examining the implications of modeling assumptions using a probabilistic approach. Analyzing the effect of small perturbations on the inputs of energy and economic models can improve decision making and modeler confidence in building simulation results. This paper describes a reproducible methodology which AIDS modelers in identifying energy and economic uncertainties caused by variabilities in solar exposure. Using an optimization framework, uncertainty is quantified across the entire simulation solution space. This approach improves modeling outcomes by factoring in the effect of variability in assumptions and improves confidence in simulation results. The methodology is demonstrated using a net zero energy commercial office building case study.
This paper examines the role of affect in marketing positioning strategy and individual positioning judgements. We examine affect in both the marketing and positioning literatures and argue that vestiges of the dual mind perspective are alive and well in positioning. Viewing 'thinking' and 'feeling' as entirely separate (as in utilitarian vs. hedonic product distinctions) runs counter to advances in neuroscience and devalues individual differences and brain functioning. As a result of our own coding of positioning dimensions, we advocate for a greater understanding of the complex interplay between affect and cognition in positioning strategy and judgements.
Since the early 2000s the Internet has become particularly crucial for the global jihadist movement. Nowhere has the Internet been more important in the movement’s development than in the West. While dynamics differ from case to case, it is fair to state that almost all recent cases of radicalization in the West involve at least some digital footprint. Jihadists, whether structured groups or unaffiliated sympathizers, have long understood the importance of the Internet in general and social media, in particular. Zachary Chesser, one of the individuals studied in this report, fittingly describes social media as “simply the most dynamic and convenient form of media there is.” As the trend is likely to increase, understanding how individuals make the leap to actual militancy is critically important.
This study is based on the analysis of the online activities of seven individuals. They share several key traits. All seven were born or raised in the United States. All seven were active in online and offline jihadist scene around the same time (mid‐ to late 2000s and early 2010s). All seven were either convicted for terrorism‐related offenses (or, in the case of two of the seven, were killed in terrorism‐related incidents.)
The intended usefulness of this study is not in making the case for monitoring online social media for intelligence purpose—an effort for which authorities throughout the West need little encouragement. Rather, the report is meant to provide potentially useful pointers in the field of counter‐radicalization. Over the past ten years many Western countries have devised more or less extensive strategies aimed at preventing individuals from embracing radical ideas or de‐radicalizing (or favoring the disengagement) of committed militants. (Canada is also in the process of establishing its own counter‐radicalization strategy.)
The analysis of official development assistance has always struggled with the contradiction between its more altruistic motivations for global development and its easy adaptation as an instrument for the donor’s pursuit of self-interested foreign policy objectives. In the international system foreign aid may thus become a forum for both cooperative and competitive interactions between donors. This chapter explores the interdependence of aid by reviewing the literature on donor interdependence, with a particular focus on donor competition for influence in recipient states. We then present a simple theoretical framework to examine donor competition, and provide some preliminary empirical testing of resulting hypotheses. We conclude that while the evidence about competition is fixed, the behaviour of some donors is consistent with their pursuit of influence in certain recipient states.
A review of five major journals in the Management Information Systems (MIS) field reveals that the majority of research articles engaging with Critical Theory, from the period 1990 to 2001, are of a conceptual nature, focusing primarily on systems development. Two reasons are suggested for the comparatively low level of engagement with Critical Theory in empirical research efforts: lack of a critical theory method and reluctance to engage with the theory's emancipatory commitments. A critical theory method that encompasses both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods is advanced. In addition, a more practiceoriented way of thinking about emancipation is proposed.
The paper identifies the characteristics of firm activities that constitute its technology scanning dynamic capability, which enables the firm to translate information about customer needs into information about tangible ways to introduce new products and services to satisfy those needs. The ability to find a specific actionable way to address customer needs is proposed to be measured by a latent construct called technology scanning. Using the literature on marketing, innovation management, knowledge management, new product development, and economics, five dimensions are identified for a technology scanning scale. A strong presence of 'technology scanning' ensures that the firm's resources are targeted to find the solution of the problems that matters most, the ones that were identified as a consequence of high level of market orientation of the firm. This work would shed some light on how managers might solve the problems and needs of the customers identified through market orientation practices. When market orientation guides technology scanning activities, the outcomes are more desirable to the firm.
- Opportunity for on-site food production comes from public and political support for ‘local food’, combined with a shortage of land for new producers
- GIS study of Ontario healthcare properties shows 217 with more than one acre of arable land available, and 54 with more than five acres
- Case studies demonstrate the benefits of a ‘farmer’— independent, staff member or community group—and/or labour force dedicated to the project
- Initial and on-going viability correlates to the extent of institutional support, particularly staff time for project coordination
- Institutional motivations for on-site food production initiatives vary, include mental and physical therapeutic benefits
See more at the Project SOIL website.
In this study we will discuss the historical changes in the work and life relationship which resulted in development of new theories. After an introduction to work-life relationships, different theories of work and life are presented in the second section of this paper. These theories are categories intro three generations based on their characteristics in the historical evolution of work-life studies. In the third section measures of work and life spillovers are described. In section four, critiques of the current methodologies which is being used in the work and life studies are presented. Discussion section which is presented in following section includes some arguments regarding the ways to select the most appropriate theories for work-life studies. Also in this section some recommendations are presented for enhancing the commonly used methodologies of the research on work and life relationships. Finally, in the last section, some recommendations for future studies are presented.
This study uses theories of motivation to analyze how performance changes over the life of a contract. Utilizing performance data for professional basketball players in the NBA for three seasons, the results show that performance does change over the life of a contract. Factors affecting how much control a player has over his performance are found to be important in how the players' performance changes as the contract completion nears.
This study uses an exploratory qualitative design to examine the lived experience of one group of service users on community treatment orders (CTOs). The study was designed and completed by four graduate students at Carleton University School of Social Work.
Despite the unique features of CTO legislation in Ontario, many findings from this study are remarkably similar to findings of research conducted in other jurisdictions. What is unique in our findings is the lack of focus on the actual conditions and provision of the CTO. The issue for our participants was less about the CTO itself, and more about the labels, control and discrimination associated with severe mental illness.
Cette étude utilise un concept qualitatif et exploratoire pour examiner les expériences vécues d’un groupe qui utilise les ordonnances de traitement en milieu communautaire (OTMC). Cette étude a été designée et complétée par 4 étudiants de l’école de service social de l’université Carleton.
Malgré les nombreux aspects uniques de la loi gérant les OTMC de l’Ontario, plusieurs résultats de cette étude sont remarquablement similaires aux résultats découverts dans de différentes juridictions. L’élément unique de cette recherche est le manque de focus sur les conditions véritables et les provisions des OTMC. La problématique encourue par les participants n’était pas au sujet des OTMC en soi, mais plus tôt au sujet de l’étiquetage, du contrôle, et de la discrimination associé aux troubles de santé mentale sévères.
Managers are often measured against an ideal that is treated as a tangible object which is stable across generations. It is the contention of this paper that the ideal manager is, in fact, a social construct that is a product of the political and social context within which it exists. Different periods in time create unique typifications of the construct, and the ideal manager is not independent of its environment. The socially constructed nature of the ideal manager will be illustrated through the analysis of the construct at one specific point in time, the internal Cold War in the years following the Second World War and ending in 1960. While widely studied in most disciplines, the Cold War has been largely ignored in the management literature, and therefore provides us with a unique perspective from which to assess the impact of context on the standard to which managers are held.
This paper reviews major differences between the accounting regulatory systems in Canada and the United States. In the U.S., the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 governs responsibilities of management, auditors, and Boards of Directors related to internal control over financial reporting. In Canada, a series of Multilateral Instruments under provincial jurisdiction serves similar objectives. As compared to the U.S., the Canadian system is more decentralized and principles-based allowing a greater degree of responsibility to the accounting profession for standard setting and oversight. The Canadian approach has resulted in weaker regulation, slower implementation, and greater influence by the accounting profession. These findings imply that accounting regulations should be tailored to fit the political and institutional structures of the adopting country.
Commissioned by: The School of Indigenous and Canadian Studies, Carleton University. Prepared by: Jo-Anne M. Lawless, PhD Student, School of Indigenous and Canadian Studies, Under the supervision of: Dr. Kahente Horn-Miller, Associate Professor
This history begins with an examination of Carleton's first acknowledgements of Indigenous peoples in their media offerings and course calendars, and follows the trajectory of academic and administrative initiatives in regard to Aboriginal programming, from the early 1940s to the present. While the report traces the ongoing efforts toward Indigenous inclusion at Carleton University, it is also a reflection of the contemporaneous social changes of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
Water and Ice Research Lab at Carleton University investigating ice island drift and
deterioration in Eastern Canada for several years. As part of this on-going research, the WIRL is
interested in developing a numerical tool to understand the role of large scale fracture or
calving event in ice island deterioration. This technical manual is prepared to provide a step-bystep guidance on how the deterioration model can be developed using simple methodology
and procedure in commercial Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software package LS DYNA. The
manual demonstrates the procedure with example problems, and addresses various issues that
may encounter in future modelling. This manual will be updated with time.
The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to massive
rates of unemployment and greater uncertainty in the job market.
There is a growing need for data-driven tools and analyses
to better inform the public on trends within the job market.
In particular, obtaining a “snapshot” of available employment
opportunities mid-pandemic promises insights to inform policy
and support retraining programs. In this work, we combine data
scraped from the Canadian Job Bank and Numbeo globally
crowd-sourced repository to explore the relationship between
job postings during a global pandemic and Key Performance
Indicators (e.g. quality of life index, cost of living) for major
cities across Canada. This analysis aims to help Canadians make
informed career decisions, collect a “snapshot” of the Canadian
employment opportunities amid a pandemic, and inform job
seekers in identifying the correct fit between the desired lifestyle
of a city and their career. We collected a new high-quality
dataset of job postings from jobbank.gc.ca obtained with the
use of ethical web scraping and performed exploratory data
analysis on this dataset to identify job opportunity trends. When
optimizing for average salary of job openings with quality of life,
affordability, cost of living, and traffic indices, it was found that
Edmonton, AB consistently scores higher than the mean, and is
therefore an attractive place to move. Furthermore, we identified
optimal provinces to relocate to with respect to individual skill
levels. It was determined that Ajax, Marathon, and Chapleau,
ON are each attractive cities for IT professionals, construction
workers, and healthcare workers respectively when maximizing
average salary. Finally, we publicly release our scraped dataset as
a mid-pandemic snapshot of Canadian employment opportunities
and present a public web application that provides an interactive
visual interface that summarizes our findings for the general
public and the broader research community.
Part of a series from the CMCRP - visit the CMCRP website for additional background. See also the related overview Poster - Canada’s Top Media, Internet & Telecom Companies by Market Share (2017) The workbook and reports were revised in early January 2019 to replace estimated revenue values for the mobile wireless, internet access and internet advertising markets with published final revenue figures from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) on December 21, 2018 and by the Internet Advertising Bureau of Canada on December 10, 2018.
This report examines the state of competition in the mobile wireless market, internet
access, broadcast, pay and streaming TV services, internet advertising, advertising
across all media, newspapers, browsers, online news sources, search, social media,
operating systems, etc. in Canada over the period from 1984 until 2017. We call the
sum-total of these media “the network media economy”. We then use two common
metrics—Concentration Ratios and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)—to determine
whether these markets—individually and collectively—are competitive or concentrated.
Part of a series from the CMCRP. Visit the CMCRP website for project details and background: http://www.cmcrp.org
Every year the Canadian Media Concentration Research Project puts out two reports on the state of the telecoms, internet, and media industries in Canada. This is the second installment in this year’s series. Whereas the first report in this series examines the growth, development and upheaval that are transforming the media industries in Canada, this report takes a step further by asking a deceptively simple but profoundly important question: have these industries—individually and collectively—become more or less concentrated over time? The report does so by examining the state of competition and concentration in the mobile wireless and wireline telecoms market, broadband internet access, cable, satellite & IPTV services, broadcast television and radio, specialty and pay television services, online video subscription and download services, newspapers, magazines, internet advertising, search engines, social media as well as mobile and desktop operating systems and browsers. This year’s report also adds significantly to our efforts last year to examine the dynamics of advertising spending across all media in Canada, i.e. TV, radio, online, newspapers, magazines and out-of-doors. As we noted in our first report, we have also significantly expanded our coverage by taking some preliminary steps to capture a broader range of audiovisual media services that are delivered over the internet.
More about the Centre for Studies on Poverty and Social Citizenship: https://carleton.ca/cspsc
See also: Canada's First National Housing Strategy - A Panel Discussion focusing on Canada’s first National Housing Strategy at the CASWE National Conference 2018
In 2016, with funding from the Ontario Trillium Foundation’s Seed Grant program, The Somali
Centre for Family Services of Ottawa (SCFS) invited Carleton University’s Centre for Studies on Poverty
and Social Citizenship (CSPSC) to partner on the completion of a needs assessment focusing on the
barriers faced by Somali youth in accessing post-secondary education, and employment training and
opportunities. In carrying out this research, the SCFS’s main objective was to address social and
economic exclusion locally by inviting Somali youth (age 19-30) from the Ottawa area to engage in the
conceptualization and design of resources that could best support their participation in educational and
Special thanks to the Toolkit researchers, including Tara McWhinney, Aaron Kozak and Evan Culic for their contributions towards building this toolkit. Cette publication est aussi disponible en français.
This Community-Based Research Toolkit is intended for community organizations trying to decide if they want to conduct research, and whether they should seek an academic partner to work with to conduct this research. This toolkit is designed as a project development checklist that acts as a guide for things to consider for community organizations conducting a research project.
Rural and remote communities comprise around32% and 22% of Australia’s and Canada’s population. However, only 14% and 16% of family physicians in Australia and Canada, respectively, practice in these communities, resulting in a disproportion in access as compared with urban areas. An erosion of health services occurs when the number of physicians and other health care providers in a region is insufficient or these professionals are non-existent. Even when existing in a rural and remote region, providers are often overburdened. Inaccessibility to services in rural and remote communities’ results in poor health outcomes for all involved.
In Canada, 1 in 7 physicians will leave rural practice within two years. Strategies to address these turnover rates and the lessening interest in entering rural practice have focused on supporting recruitment and retention initiatives (RnR) to first bring physicians into rural practice and then encourage physicians to continue in rural practice beyond the short-term.
These programs have so far been insufficient or ineffective to address the lack of physicians in rural and remote areas. A review of recent literature related to RnR initiatives focused on rural physicians in Australia and Canada was conducted to investigate the strengths and limitations of initiatives. Further, this review critically examines the short and long-term feasibility of initiatives and develops a conceptual framework for designing or examining RnR initiatives.
A review of recent literature related to eHealth technologies in Canada and Australia was conducted to better understand specific barriers and enablers for the uptake, acceptability, and success of eMental health programs.
It has been shown that the more “rural” or “remote” a community, the access to mental health services decreases. By mitigating barriers and promoting enablers, successful eMental health integration can increase access to mental health services for rural residents.
eMental health aims to bridge the gap between rural and urban mental health services by introducing electronic methods such as teleconferencing or videoconferencing for psychological services, virtual referral to psychiatrists, and sharing of electronic records. Successful integration of the technology remains a challenging task, with key actors, enablers, and barriers all influencing its success.
Although health care is widely accessible in most developed countries, rural areas often struggle to adequately meet health care needs. Challenges in accessing and receiving adequate health care introduce large variations in disease levels, level of treatment, life expectancy,and overall health status for rural populations. eHealth, or electronic health,defined here as any electronic medium used to access health services,is a method used to bridge the gap between rural and urban centers to improve health care access. Including the above definition, eHealth also includes any technology designed to improve efficiencies and reduce costs in relation to health care. By providing a comprehensive overview of feedback from past interventions, policy-makers and program developers can develop strategies to improve the implementation and the use of eHealth technologies.
Rural and remote communities in both Australia and Canada have a higher burden of mental illness relative to their urban counterparts. Suicide rates, particularly, are higher across all age groups among men in rural communities as compared to metropolitan areas. Mental health issues are especially present in younger populations within these communities. Additionally, rural and remote communities tend to have higher proportions of Indigenous origin individuals, who face additional challenges and service barriers.
Rural and remote communities often encounter significant barriers to accessing mental health care. Individuals from these communities may be serviced solely by general health care providers that are not trained in mental health treatment. Travelling away from the community to alleviate this issue only further hinders accessibility as these individuals must travel larger distances to access specialized health services. When services are accessed, those from rural and remote communities are met with longer wait times than their urban counterparts. With no specialized treatment within the rural or remote community and inaccessible treatment outside the community, mental health care must shift to informal caregivers and the community as a whole.
Rural and remote communities are often not trained in mental health care. Interventions to address rural and remote youth mental health are needed to equip communities with the tools and skills to overcome access barriers and support community members. A review of recent literature related to rural and remote youth mental health interventions was conducted. The aim of the review is to characterize these mental health interventions in Australia and Canada and examine how they relate to youth.
Rural and remote communities in Australia and Canada experience barriers to accessing healthcare services (1). These barriers are especially pronounced when attempting to access more specialized health care services, such as paediatric (2–4). Both countries have implemented programs that aim to bridge the gap between rural communities and specialized healthcare. One such service is telepaediatrics.
Telepaediatrics, as part of telehealth, refers to any paediatric health-related service, network, or medical tool that transmits voice, data, images and information through telecommunication programs as part of providing health services (5–7). Telehealth services are ideal because they remove the need to relocate the rural patient to urban specialist sites (5–7).
In a WHO survey (2010), 60% of member countries had telehealth services in place but only 30% of these programs were implemented as part of routine care (8). Only 3 member countries had established telepaediatric services in place (8). No previous investigations examine the use of telehealth programs in urban versus rural settings (8). This review aims to identify the common barriers to telepaediatric services in rural Australia and Canada and outlines suggestions for future implementation.
The small size coupled with remoteness of rural communities in Canada, Australia, and Sweden introduce challenges in accessing sufficient health services (1-3). The sparse health services in rural areas impose “the tyranny of distance” on rural and remote populations, necessitating lengthy travel times to receive care. Despite the increased challenges rural communities face, a dearth of research on rural health persists, particularly rural youth health (4,5).
A broad scoping review was undertaken to identify literature regarding rural youth health in Canada, Australia, and Sweden. The studies were coded according to
population focus, health focus, access, and general. The scoping review produced the Rural Youth Health Scoping Review Database, which provides an overview of the available research on rural youth health.
This report was originally published on December 7, 2021. We re-released in on December 17, 2021 after cleaning up the text from an editorial point of view. This resulted in some stylistic changes but nothing substantive.
The pollution prevention provisions of Canada’s Fisheries Act, and the regulations made pursuant to those provisions, form the core of Canada’s federal water pollution regime. The Act applies nationally, and the sectoral regulations apply to an ever-expanding list of activities. The regime is actively enforced. The Canada’s Fisheries Act and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA) 1 together form the key underpinnings for Environment and Climate Change Canada’s pollution regulations. The Canada’s Fisheries Act also takes an unusual approach to pollution prevention: a general prohibition against pollution in the Act itself, while the regulations under the Act permit pollution under specified conditions.
The Canada’s Fisheries Act itself is over 150 years old. Where did the modern regime come from, and how did it take the form it has today? That is the subject matter of this Case Study.
Canada’s coal-fired electricity regulations were published in 2012 and were the first federal regulations targeting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stationary sources. They have since been strengthened. This case study tells the policy story of how the regulations came about, and how in the space of 18 months the government’s regulatory approach evolved from one based on emissions intensity, to cap-and-trade, to capital stock turnover. It also tells the technical story of how a simple regulation based on the length of time a facility has to operate can still build in elements of trading and other flexibilities. It ends with some observations around lessons learned.
Canadians living in rural communities are diverse, with individual communities defined by unique strengths and challenges that impact their health needs. Understanding rural health needs is a complex undertaking, with many challenges pertaining to engagement, research, and policy development. In order to address these challenges, it is imperative to understand the unique characteristics of rural communities as well as to ensure that the voices of rural and remote communities are prioritized in the development and implementation of rural health research programs and policy. Effective community engagement is essential in order to establish rural-normative programs and policies to improve the health of individuals living in rural, remote, and northern communities.
This report was informed by a community engagement workshop held in Golden Lake, Ontario in October 2019. Workshop attendees were comprised of residents from communities within the Madawaska Valley, community health care professionals, students and researchers from Carleton University in Ottawa, Ontario, and international researchers from Australia, Sweden, and Austria. The themes identified throughout the workshop included community strengths and initiatives that are working well, challenges and concerns faced by the community in the context of health, and suggestions to build on strengths and address challenges to improve the health of residents in the Madawaska Valley.
This report was prepared for the Centre for Rural Medicine in Storuman, Sweden, as part of the Free Range international student exchange program.
See also Carleton's Spatial Determinants of Health Lab: https://carleton.ca/determinants
This report is provides guidance for research teams who are currently planning or are in the midst of
implementing an e-health intervention in rural communities. It describes the important factors which need to be considered when scaling - up a pilot project from one context to another, and demonstrates what a successful project needs to maximize the probability that it will achieve the
desired level of spread within the healthcare system.
This report can be used as a reference for people who wish to implement a novel intervention
into a new environment. Ideally it will be used in the early stages of intervention design to help researchers understand how a complex adaptive system functions and why navigating one is important for the outcome of their intervention. To begin, the report covers some basic terminology used when discussing complex adaptive systems and highlights the importance of working with these ideas moving forward.
Next, in-depth discussions about sense-making, leverage points, self-organization, and agent-based modelling provide evidence of the complexity of implementation. Finally, the principle of antifragility is discussed, as well as a tangible example of an intervention which has been designed with antifragility in mind. Finally, the conclusion summarizes the key findings of the report, offers future directions, and identifies some of the
Part of a series from the CMCRP - visit the CMCRP website for additional background. The workbook and reports were revised in early January 2019 to replace estimated revenue values for the mobile wireless, internet access and internet advertising markets with published final revenue figures from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) on December 21, 2018 and by the Internet Advertising Bureau of Canada on December 10, 2018.
The report examines the development of the media economy over the past thirty-three years. We do so by examining a dozen or so of the biggest telecoms, internet and media industries in Canada, based on revenue. These include: mobile wireless and wireline telecoms; internet access; cable, satellite & IPTV; broad- cast, specialty, pay and over-the-top TV; radio; newspapers; magazines; music; and internet advertising. We call the total
of these sectors “the network media economy”. Our method is simple: we begin by collecting, organizing, and making available stand-alone data for each media industry individually. We then group related, comparable industry sectors into three higher level categories: the “network media” (e.g. mobile wireless, internet access, broadcast distribution), the “content media” (e.g. television, newspapers, magazines, etc.) and “internet media” (e.g. internet advertising, search, internet news sources). Ultimately, we combine them all together to get a bird’s-eye view of the network media economy. We call this the scaffolding approach.
Part of a series from the CMCRP. Visit the CMCRP website for project details and background: http://www.cmcrp.org
This report examines the development of the media economy over the past thirtyfour years. Since beginning this project nearly a decade ago, we have focused on as comprehensive as possible selection of the biggest telecoms, internet and media industries (based on revenue), including: mobile wireless and wireline telecoms; internet access; cable, satellite & IPTV; broadcast television, specialty and pay television services and over-the-internet video subscription and download services; radio; newspapers; magazines; music; internet advertising; social media; operating systems; browsers, etc.
This year, we have made some fairly dramatic changes in terms of what we cover, and the breadth of our analysis. For the first time, this report takes some preliminary steps to capture a broader range of audiovisual media services that are delivered over
the internet beyond online video subscription and download services and internet advertising, including: online gaming, app store and music downloads.
Previous research has identified several likely causes of eligible non-participation in the Canada
Learning Bond (CLB), including awareness, financial exclusion, and administrative barriers.
This study expands on that research, with a particular focus on the role of tax-filing as an
administrative obstacle to accessing the CLB. I present results from an online survey of low and
modest income parents (n=466) conducted in 2021. We find that, even among parents reporting
they have received the CLB (46%), a majority (51%) report low confidence in their familiarity
with the program, and more than one in six (17%) are unaware of the need to file tax returns
to maintain eligibility for annual CLB payments. Self-reported regular tax-filing is associated
with a 59% increase in the probability of accessing the CLB, even when controlling for a range
of parental characteristics. This study confirms previous work by Harding and colleagues
(2019) that non-filing may explain some share of eligible non-participation in education savings
incentives. Tax-filing services may be an important pathway to improve CLB access. Low and
modest income parents show substantial diversity in their preferred filing methods and outreach
efforts cannot be concentrated in only one avenue if they are to be successful. The study also
tests a small ‘nudge’ to address gaps in awareness and finds that information-only approaches to
outreach are likely to have limited success, even with motivated populations.
The digital economy, which was once considered as a panacea, is becoming increasingly
viewed as a grand societal challenge – a problem that not only presents significant barriers to many
people but is also so complex that it cannot be tackled by any one single organization. Mangers
influence how the components of the global digital infrastructure, such as data analytics, artificial
intelligence, and robotics impact society. However, mitigating the broad-gauged impacts of the
digital economy, like its impact on the nature of work, would benefit from new ideas about
manger’s roles in the digital economy. Framed in a management learning perspective, this study
collates what we know, and what we need to know, about management and the digital economy.
Overall, this paper suggests that managers need to learn new habits of thought to build a more
balanced, equitable, and sustainable version of digital economy. Perspectives on how to design
management learning environments to help managers think of, then implement, a digital ecosystem
rather than a digital economy will contribute to ongoing debates about management learning that
will advance positive transformations of the nature of work.
This research project is an examination of change in the fundraising activities employed by small Canadian registered charities (defined as registered charities with total annual revenues under $100,000) over the ten year period from 2000 to 2009. Utilizing data from the Registered Charity Information Returns (T3010) filed by charities with the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA), the study provides a profile of fundraising methods used, examining trends in types and number of fundraising methods utilized over the ten year period. We analyze variation in terms of size, designation type (charitable organization/public foundation /private foundation), location (rural/urban), charitable activity (welfare, religion, education, health, benefit to the community, other), orientation (religious/secular), and geographic region (each province and territory, western Canada/central Canada/Maritimes/territories).
The term ‘fundraising methods’ refers to the tactics used by charities to generate current or future monies and gifts in kind to provide services to clients, fund research, and cover administrative costs. Under conditions of reduced financial support from government, fundraising is an important, even critical, source of revenue for charities. Equally important is access to accurate information on fundraising methods used by charities in Canada. This paper traces the evolution of fundraising data collected by Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) over the last ten years, compares definitions employed by CRA with examples drawn from the academic and practitioner literatures, and highlights methods not currently being tracked by the T3010 Registered Charity Information Return.
This paper presents selected preliminary results from a study of B2B e-commerce
adoption by Canadian manufacturing firms. The goal of the broad research project
IS to describe the behaviour of Canadian manufacturers with respect to adoption
of B2B technologies and to identify factors which distinguish adopters from non-adopters
of B2B. The study focuses on the organizational characteristics of
adopters of B2B e-commerce technologies and attempts to outline the features
which differentiate them from non-adopters. Preliminary analysis shows the
existence of three distinct B2B adopter types: non-adopters, partial-adopters and
full-adopters. Leadership related variables appear to be the most important
determinants of adoption.
Implementation of quality management practice in E-Commerce (EC) is a relatively new challenging area to researchers and managers. Proliferation of EC provides an opportunity to quality management gurus to reshape quality dimensions suitable for real sustainability, expansion, and success of EC. Based on the underpinning principles of Total Quality Management (TQM) and quality management practice this paper focuses on the quality dimensions required for launching a successful EC as the competitive edge in gaining market leadership. This article postulates a model to integrate quality management in EC.
Surveys of Australian consumers before and after French nuclear testing in the Pacific show clear evidence of negative responses of consumers to the 1995 testing. Although evaluations of French products did not decline, evaluations of France and the French did. However, by 2005 ratings of French products and France had more than recovered. A model of effects among country and product belief sets is proposed and tested. The model is strongly supported and helpful in understanding the process of image recover.
This paper applies attitude theory to assess the influence of beliefs and evaluations of Nepal with desired linkages and travel intentions. The main contribution is to connect TDI and PCI research by testing a general country image model in a tourism context. Attitude theory acts as the connection between the two fields.
Export Processing Zones (EPZs) are areas within developing countries where business is offered special incentives and a barrier-free environment in order to promote economic growth by attracting foreign investment for export-oriented production. Most developing countries now have EPZs, and the number of zones, number of firms operating within them, and volume of business are growing rapidly. Yet studies of the EPZ phenomenon by business researchers are virtually non-existent, leading to poor understanding of its role in international marketing. This paper draws from the economics literature to provide an integrative review of the EPZ concept, discusses its importance for host nations and international business, and provides suggestions for future research.
Past research on brand extension evaluation does not incorporate the effects of the target category structure and competition from the existing brand. This paper reports the findings of an exploratory experimental study that shows the effects of competition on the evaluation of brand extensions and potential implications of the dominant brand in the target category.
Identity fraud (IDF) is the fastest growing white-collar crime in many countries and specifically in developed countries. IDF is not a new phenomenal in human societies; the history of IDF can be traced back to hundreds of years ago. What has made it the center of attention in the past few years is the acceleration in the frequency and the impacts of IDF to individuals and businesses. One of the preliminary steps in managing IDF as a global phenomenon is to understand the scope of the problem and measure its different aspects. By realizing the importance of developing measurement systems in this area, and the recognition of a gap in this area of research, this study presents the previous approaches in developing IDF measurement systems, and uses them as benchmarks for developing and proposing a comprehensive measurement system for assessing IDF.
The problem of identity theft is complex, spans the boundaries of many organizations, companies and countries, and affects numerous entities in different ways at different times. However, given the nature of the problem, it is extremely difficult and costly for an individual or an organization to fight it on its own. An increasing number of practitioners and researchers have started to indicate that the success of identity theft management relies on joint efforts of different stakeholders. Collaboration, generally defined as 'working together to some end' is believed to have the potential of delivering numerous benefits to its participants when properly executed. This paper discusses different aspects of collaboration efforts undertaken by organizations in order to fight identity theft.
Advertising appeals are central to the effectiveness of advertising and have been studied extensively. However, past research has focused primarily on examining the effects of one or another type of appeal on consumers, and little is known about the concept of an advertising appeal itself. As part of a broader program intended to address this gap, this paper examines the role of underlying motivational forces in the development of consumer attributions regarding advertising appeals. More specifically, we are centrally concerned with examining under what conditions emotion states, personality traits, and underlying motivations may lead to product judgements and subsequent (purchase) behaviour.
This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the performance of privatized banks in developed countries. Consistent with the competitive effects hypothesis which asserts that privatization could hurt rivals, we find that the rival banks reacted negatively to news of bank privatization in developed countries. The competitive effects are stronger in cases where government ownership decreases significantly. Contrary to the findings of prior studies that examine the performance of privatized banks in developing countries, we find that privatized banks in developed countries experienced significant improvements in operating performance and stock market performance in the post privatization period.
This paper reviews the existing evidence for dual discrimination based on gender and ethnicity for minority/immigrant women. It focuses on income inequalities between minority/immigrant women and other groups. The effects of human capital, occupational segregation, sector segregation and discrimination or stereotyping on earnings gap are identified. The paper also proposes that a preponderance of minority females in certain occupations may result in a devaluation of wages and lowering of prestige in these occupations. The unique set of stressors experienced by minority/immigrant women that may affect access to jobs as well as performance on the job are also discussed.
This paper provides empirical evidence on the growth, financing activity, and operating performance of Canadian business income trusts. We find that business income trusts are growing in terms of total assets and sales revenues. They frequently acquire other businesses in post-IPO period. We also find that income trusts are likely to issue third-party debt to finance acquisitions. Median operating return on total assets decreases after an business income trust IPO, indicating an operating performance inferior to that in pre-lPO years.
Identification of effective and cost-efficient compensation practices for recruiting and retaining expatriate employees is becoming increasingly important in today's global labor market. This paper proposes a study to investigate perceptions of fair compensation for expatriate employment using the tenets of equity theory. Participants will specify an "equitable" monetary bonus for hypothetical overseas assignments of different lengths and locations. Relying on Konopaske's and Werner's (2002) propositions, the author predicts the following: 1) Short-term overseas assignments will require a larger "foreign service premium" (monetary bonus) than domestic relocation, 2) Long-term expatriate assignments will require a larger premium than short-term or domestic relocation, and 3) Relocation to a developing country will require a larger premium than relocation to an advanced industrialized nation or to a domestic location. A methodology and data analysis strategy are described.
One problem faced by a profit center loyalty reward program firm is that of determining the percentage of the points (the so called "breakage factor or "breakage rate" in loyalty programs industry) accumulated each year that end up not ever being redeemed by members, and that should therefore, be recognized as revenue in the establishment of the periodical financial statements. A higher breakage rate will contribute to increase the net income and profitability on the financial statements. This in turn would offer a competitive advantage to a firm in attracting and pricing new third party partners, developing company strategic plans, and managing the overall yearly reward capacity. In this paper, we propose a quantitative methodology for determining the breakage rate in Loyalty Reward Programs (LRP). The proposed methodology is a simulation-based approach in which the accumulation and redemption of "points" is modeled as a stochastic process. An application of the approach to a real-life context is discussed.
The paper addresses important issues regarding how consumers' purchase decisions in a product category are influenced by market mix variables in other categories. We propose a structural analysis of multi-category purchase decisions, where we simultaneously model and estimate consumers' purchase incidence, brand choice and quantity choice decisions across multiple product categories. Addtionally, we study the role played by umbrella brands in influencing the decision made by consumers. We propose a structural model where all the three decisions are derived from the consumer's global utility maximization. Such structural analysis is important from the perspective of (i) a retailer whose objective is to maximize profits over all product categories, and (ii) a manufacturer whose objective is to maximize profits over its entire product line. Our analysis highlights the importance of studying consumers' purchase decisions in a multi-category context which can not be addressed by studying each category in seclusion.
In the typology of harassment and aggression in the workplace, workplace incivility is situated as a non-aggressive, low intensity form of deviant behaviour with an uncertain intent to cause harm. The importance of incivility to organizational theory and human resource management is that it may have a negative effect on organizational outcomes and more importantly it may be a precursor for more overt forms of workplace violence. Two potential influences on the effects of incivility are personality and workplace context; the latter of these two has not been sufficiently explored in the literature. This paper will take one step towards addressing this gap by examining the ways in which incivility is moderated in the context of military organizations. The result of this contextual examination of incivility will be a proposal that incivility may have a positive effect through the development of coping strategies for stressful situations encountered by armed forces.
Labour shortages are imminent in a variety of different industries, particularly those that require high levels of skills. Organizations will need to plan for these shortages as many of the solutions will have fairly long lead times before an impact is felt. One area from which short-term gains may be achieved is the reduction of voluntary turnover, particularly the loss of productive employees. An area with potential for longer-term success in combating the labour shortage is in restructuring. Through restructuring, organizations can redesign the work processes so that when employees do leave, the position will have to be reworked and a replacement may not be needed. The organization will be shrinking in headcount, but it will remain as productive as it was before downsizing due to efficiencies gained; it will have successfully navigated "involuntary downsizing". The purpose of this paper is to develop the concept of involuntary downsizing" by expanding the definition of downsizing to include situations in which organizations are competing in diminishing labour markets. Similar to the current concept of downsizing, organizations will need to accomplish more, with fewer resources; however, the cause of the downsizing and the solutions that are available will be different.
Academic research into codes of ethics has given us valuable information on the subject but has failed to provide an all-encompassing understanding of the contents of actual codes. This paper looks at what is presently known about this subject, presents a conceptual model that integrates the different elements that go into a code of ethics, describes the dynamics that explains why each company's code of ethics has a distinct content, and presents preliminary results obtained after having analyzed a cross-section of the code of ethics of member companies of the Ethics and Compliance Officer Association.