A near infrared (NIR) electrochromic attenuator based on a dinuclear ruthenium complex and polycrystalline tungsten oxide was fabricated and characterized. The results show that the use of the NIR-absorbing ruthenium complex as a counter electrode material can improve the device performance. By replacing the visible electrochromic ferrocene with the NIR-absorbing ruthenium complex, the optical attenuation at 1550 nm was enhanced from 19.1 to 30.0 dB and color efficiency also increased from 29.2 to 121.2 cm2/C.
We study the feasibility of design for a layer-deposition manufacturing process called stereolithography which works by controlling a vertical laser beam which when targeted on a photocurable liquid causes the liquid to harden. In order to understand the power as well as the limitations of this manufacturing process better, we define a mathematical model of stereolithography (referred to as vertical stereolithography) and analyze the class of objects that can be constructed under the assumptions of the model. Given an object (modeled as a polygon or a polyhedron), we give algorithms that decide in O(n) time (where n is the number of vertices in the polygon or polyhedron) whether or not the object can be constructed by vertical stereolithography. If the answer is in the affirmative, the algorithm reports a description of all the orientations in which the object can be made. We also show that the objects built with vertical stereolithography are precisely those that can be made with a 3-axis NC machine. We then define a more flexible model that more accurately reflects the actual capabilities of stereolithography (referred to as variable-angle stereolithography) and again study the class of feasible objects for this model. We give an O(n)-time algorithm for polygons and O(n log n)- as well as O(n)-time algorithms for polyhedra. We show that objects formed with variable-angle stereolithography can also be constructed using another manufacturing process known as gravity casting. Furthermore, we show that the polyhedral objects formed by vertical stereolithography are closely related to polyhedral terrains which are important structures in geographic information systems (GIS) and computational geometry. In fact, an object built with variable-angle stereolithography resembles a terrain with overhangs, thus initiating the study of more realistic terrains than the standard ones considered in geographic information systems. Finally, we relate our results to the area of grasping in robotics by showing that the polygonal and polyhedral objects that can be built by vertical stereolithography can be clamped by parallel jaw grippers with any positive-sized gripper.
We provide optimal parallel solutions to several link-distance problems set in trapezoided rectilinear polygons. All our main parallel algorithms are deterministic and designed to run on the exclusive read exclusive write parallel random access machine (EREW PRAM). Let P be a trapezoided rectilinear simple polygon with n vertices. In O(log n) time using O(n/log n) processors we can optimally compute: 1. Minimum réctilinear link paths, or shortest paths in the L1 metric from any point in P to all vertices of P. 2. Minimum rectilinear link paths from any segment inside P to all vertices of P. 3. The rectilinear window (histogram) partition of P. 4. Both covering radii and vertex intervals for any diagonal of P. 5. A data structure to support rectilinear link-distance queries between any two points in P (queries can be answered optimally in O(log n) time by uniprocessor). Our solution to 5 is based on a new linear-time sequential algorithm for this problem which is also provided here. This improves on the previously best-known sequential algorithm for this problem which used O(n log n) time and space.5 We develop techniques for solving link-distance problems in parallel which are expected to find applications in the design of other parallel computational geometry algorithms. We employ these parallel techniques, for example, to compute (on a CREW PRAM) optimally the link diameter, the link center, and the central diagonal of a rectilinear polygon.
Current research depicts suburbs as becoming more heterogeneous in terms of socio-economic status. Providing a novel analysis, this paper engages with that research by operationalising suburban ways of living (homeownership, single-family dwelling occupancy and automobile use) and relating them to the geography of income across 26 Canadian metropolitan areas. We find that suburban ways of living exist in new areas and remain associated with higher incomes even as older suburbs, as places, have become more diverse. In the largest cities the relationship between income and suburban ways of living is weaker due to the growth of condominiums in downtowns that allow higher income earners to live urban lifestyles. Homeownership is overwhelmingly more important than other variables in explaining the geography of income across 26 metropolitan areas.
There is a paradoxical relationship between the density of solar housing and net household energy use. The amount of solar energy available per person decreases as density increases. At the same time, transportation energy, and to some extent, household operating energy decreases. Thus, an interesting question is posed: how does net energy use vary with housing density? This study attempts to provide insight into this question by examining three housing forms: low-density detached homes, medium-density townhouses, and high-density high-rise apartments in Toronto. The three major quantities of energy that are summed for each are building operational energy use, solar energy availability, and personal transportation energy use. Solar energy availability is determined on the basis of an effective annual collector efficiency. The results show that under the base case in which solar panels are applied to conventional homes, the high-density development uses one-third less energy than the low-density one. Improving the efficiency of the homes results in a similar trend. Only when the personal vehicle fleet or solar collectors are made to be extremely efficient does the trend reverse-the low-density development results in lower net energy.
This article interrogates the question of what it means to be a scholar-commentator in the digital age. Deploying an autoethnographic style, the essay asks about the role of power and responsibility in teaching, research, and public commentary, particularly in the context of studying and engaging in Jewish politics. The article addresses questions about the proper role of the scholar in the academy and the role of subjectivity and political commitments in structuring scholarship, pedagogy, and public engagement. It also examines how one’s view of the profession can seem to shift through the emergence of new writing outlets and new forums for public engagement. Finally, the author investigates how a scholar’s own political commitments can shift over time, how one seeks to shore up identification on social media while trying to change hearts and minds through the op-ed pages, and how community identification can serve as a buffer and motivator for particular forms of research and political action.
This paper analyzes how the “particular symbolic fortunes” of Canada’s most widely recognized literary prize, the Scotiabank Giller Prize, undergo what James English calls “capital intraconversion”––how they are “culturally ‘laundered’” through their association with Frontier College, Canada’s longest-running adult literacy organization. While the Giller initially benefitted from fashioning itself as the private, industry-driven alternative to state-sponsored culture in Canada, increasing criticism of its corporate sponsorship has led, in the past decade, to a rebranding effort. This effort, I contend, seeks to benefit from two key terms––multiculturalism and literacy. Associated as the discourse of multiculturalism and the figure of the literate citizen are with the strong publics of the western, liberal-democratic nation-state, they possess a remarkable ability to accentuate the symbolic capital of Canada’s most widely recognized literary prize.
Ca-ATPase activity in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes isolated from skeletal muscles of the typical hibernator, the ground squirrel Spermophilus undulatus, is about 2-fold lower than that in SR membranes of rats and rabbits and is further decreased 2-fold during hibernation. The use of carbocyanine anionic dye Stains-All has revealed that Ca-binding proteins of SR membranes, histidine-rich Ca-binding protein and sarcalumenin, in ground squirrel, rat, and rabbit SR have different electrophoretic mobility corresponding to apparent molecular masses 165, 155, and 170 kDa and 130, 145, and 160 kDa, respectively; the electrophoretic mobility of calsequestrin (63 kDa) is the same in all preparations. The content of these Ca-binding proteins in SR membranes of the ground squirrels is decreased 3–4 fold and the content of 55, 30, and 22 kDa proteins is significantly increased during hibernation.
A novel technique for increasing the sensitivity of tilted fibre Bragg grating (TFBG) based refractometers is presented. The TFBG sensor was coated with chemically synthesized silver nanowires 100nm in diameter and several micrometres in length. A 3.5-fold increase in sensor sensitivity was obtained relative to the uncoated TFBG sensor. This increase is associated with the excitation of surface plasmons by orthogonally polarized fibre cladding modes at wavelengths near 1.5μm. Refractometric information is extracted from the sensor via the strong polarization dependence of the grating resonances using a Jones matrix analysis of the transmission spectrum of the fibre.