The pollution prevention provisions of Canada’s Fisheries Act, and the regulations made pursuant to those provisions, form the core of Canada’s federal water pollution regime. The Act applies nationally, and the sectoral regulations apply to an ever-expanding list of activities. The regime is actively enforced. The Canada’s Fisheries Act and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA) 1 together form the key underpinnings for Environment and Climate Change Canada’s pollution regulations. The Canada’s Fisheries Act also takes an unusual approach to pollution prevention: a general prohibition against pollution in the Act itself, while the regulations under the Act permit pollution under specified conditions.
The Canada’s Fisheries Act itself is over 150 years old. Where did the modern regime come from, and how did it take the form it has today? That is the subject matter of this Case Study.
Water and Ice Research Lab at Carleton University investigating ice island drift and
deterioration in Eastern Canada for several years. As part of this on-going research, the WIRL is
interested in developing a numerical tool to understand the role of large scale fracture or
calving event in ice island deterioration. This technical manual is prepared to provide a step-bystep guidance on how the deterioration model can be developed using simple methodology
and procedure in commercial Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software package LS DYNA. The
manual demonstrates the procedure with example problems, and addresses various issues that
may encounter in future modelling. This manual will be updated with time.