Few people have bothered to defend the Majoritarian, winner take all character of the current Canadian electoral system. This parliamentary system has been in existence in the same form since the founding of the modern state in 1867. In these remarks, I offer a defense of Majoritarianism in the Canadian context when the alternative is some form of Proportional Representation. These remarks were prepared as an opening statement in a debate on electoral reform at a Faculty of Public Affairs 75th Anniversary conference at Carleton University, March 3, 2017.
The debate arose because of the Prime Minister's announced intention to replace the current system with some other during the election campaign that led to his victory in 2015. The debate occurred a few months after the release of a lengthy report on electoral reform by a special allparty committee of the House of Commons. A few weeks before the debate, the Prime Minister announced (independently of the debate, of course) that his government would no longer pursue electoral reform, perhaps because it looked like he would not be able to avoid a referendum, a process which is hard to control. In any event, and especially in the light of recent attempts to change the system both at the federal level and in some provinces, I think it is important for people to understand that the existing electoral system is a sensible one that likely will continue to serve us well.
Energy models are commonly used to examine the multitude of pathways to improve building performance. As presently practiced, a deterministic approach is used to evaluate incremental design improvements to achieve performance targets. However, significant insight can be gained by examining the implications of modeling assumptions using a probabilistic approach. Analyzing the effect of small perturbations on the inputs of energy and economic models can improve decision making and modeler confidence in building simulation results. This paper describes a reproducible methodology which AIDS modelers in identifying energy and economic uncertainties caused by variabilities in solar exposure. Using an optimization framework, uncertainty is quantified across the entire simulation solution space. This approach improves modeling outcomes by factoring in the effect of variability in assumptions and improves confidence in simulation results. The methodology is demonstrated using a net zero energy commercial office building case study.
Net-zero energy is an influential idea in guiding the building stock towards renewable
energy resources. Increasingly, this target is scaled to entire communities
which may include dozens of buildings in each new development phase.
Although building energy modelling processes and codes have been well developed
to guide decision making, there is a lack of methodologies for community
integrated energy masterplanning. The problem is further complicated by the
availability of district systems which better harvest and store on-site renewable
energy. In response to these challenges, this paper contributes an energy modelling
methodology which helps energy masterplanners determine trade-offs between
building energy saving measures and district system design. Furthermore,
this paper shows that it is possible to mitigate electrical and thermal peaks of a
net-zero energy community using minimal district equipment. The methodology
is demonstrated using a cold-climate case-study with both significant heating/
cooling loads and solar energy resources.
New threats to networks are constantly arising. This justifies protecting network assets and mitigating the risk associated with attacks. In a distributed environment, researchers aim, in particular, at eliminating faulty network entities. More specifically, much research has been conducted on locating a single static black hole, which is defined as a network site whose existence is known a priori and that disposes of any incoming data without leaving any trace of this occurrence. However, the prevalence of faulty nodes requires an algorithm able to (a) identify faulty nodes that can be repaired without human intervention and (b) locate black holes, which are taken to be faulty nodes whose repair does require human intervention. In this paper, we consider a specific attack model that involves multiple faulty nodes that can be repaired by mobile software agents, as well as a virus v that can infect a previously repaired faulty node and turn it into a black hole. We refer to the task of repairing multiple faulty nodes and pointing out the location of the black hole as the Faulty Node Repair and Dynamically Spawned Black Hole Search. Wefirst analyze the attack model we put forth. We then explain (a) how to identify whether a node is either (1) a normal node or (2) a repairable faulty node or (3) the black hole that has been infected by virus v during the search/repair process and, (b) how to perform the correct relevant actions. These two steps constitute a complex task, which, we explain, significantly differs from the traditional Black Hole Search. We continue by proposing an algorithm to solve this problem in an asynchronous ring network with only one whiteboard (which resides in a node called the homebase). We prove the correctness of our solution and analyze its complexity by both theoretical analysis and experiment evaluation. We conclude that, using our proposed algorithm, b + 4 agents can repair all faulty nodes and locate the black hole infected by a virus v within finite time. Our algorithm works even when the number of faulty nodes b is unknown a priori.
The well-separated pair decomposition (WSPD) of the complete Euclidean graph defined on points in ℝ2 (Callahan and Kosaraju [JACM, 42 (1): 67-90, 1995]) is a technique for partitioning the edges of the complete graph based on length into a linear number of sets. Among the many different applications of WSPDs, Callahan and Kosaraju proved that the sparse subgraph that results by selecting an arbitrary edge from each set (called WSPD-spanner) is a 1 + 8/(s − 4)-spanner, where s > 4 is the separation ratio used for partitioning the edges. Although competitive local-routing strategies exist for various spanners such as Yao-graphs, Θ-graphs, and variants of Delaunay graphs, few local-routing strategies are known for any WSPD-spanner. Our main contribution is a local-routing algorithm with a near-optimal competitive routing ratio of 1 + O(1/s) on a WSPD-spanner. Specifically, we present a 2-local and a 1-local routing algorithm on a WSPD-spanner with competitive routing ratios of 1+6/(s−2)+4/s and 1+6/(s−2)+ 6/s + 4/(s2 − 2s) + 8/s2respectively.