Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) is an emerging multiple-input multiple-output method, utilizing multimode waveguides to increase channel numbers. In the past, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices have been primarily focused on single-mode waveguides. We present the design and fabrication of a two-mode SOI ring resonator for MDM systems. By optimizing the device parameters, we have ensured that each mode is treated equally within the ring. Using adiabatic Bezier curves in the ring bends, our ring demonstrated a signal-to-crosstalk ratio above 18 dB for both modes at the through and drop ports. We conclude that the ring resonator has the potential for filtering and switching for MDM systems on SOI.
Aptamers are short, single-stranded nucleic acids that fold into well-defined three dimensional (3D) structures that allow for binding to a target molecule with affinities and specificities that can rival or in some cases exceed those of antibodies. The compatibility of aptamers with nanostructures such as thin films, in combination with their affinity, selectivity, and conformational changes upon target interaction, could set the foundation for the development of novel smart materials. In this study, the development of a biocompatible aptamer-polyelectrolyte film system was investigated using a layer-by-layer approach. Using fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated the ability of the sulforhodamine B aptamer to bind its cognate target while sequestered in a chitosan-hyaluronan film matrix. Studies using Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry also suggest that deposition conditions such as rinsing time and volume play a strong role in the internal film interactions and growth mechanisms of chitosan-hyaluronan films. The continued study and development of aptamer-functionalized thin films provides endless new opportunities for novel smart materials and has the potential to revolutionize the field of controlled release.
I examine the relation between sensation and discursive thought (dianoia) in Plato, Plotinus, and Proclus. In Theaetetus, a soul whose highest faculty was sensation would have no unified experience of the sensible world, lacking universal ideas to give order to the sensible flux. It is implied that such universals are grasped by the soul’s thinking. In Plotinus the soul is not passive when it senses the world, but as the logos of all things it thinks the world through its own forms.Proclus argues against the derivation of universal logoi from the senses, which alone can’t make the sensible world comprehensible. At most they give a record of the original sense-impression in its particularity. The soul’s own projected logoi give the sensible world stability. For Proclus, bare sensation does not depend on thought, but a unified experience of the sense-world depends on its paradigmatic logoi in our souls.
This article describes the progress made toward implementing Resource Description and Access (RDA) in libraries across Canada, as of Fall 2013. Differences in the training experiences in the English-speaking cataloging communities and French-speaking cataloging communities are discussed. Preliminary results of a survey of implementation in English-Canadian libraries are included as well as a summary of the support provided for French-Canadian libraries. Data analysis includes an examination of the rate of adoption in Canada by region and by sector. Challenges in RDA training delivery in a Canadian context are identified, as well as opportunities for improvement and expansion of RDA training in the future.
Within the past decade, academic libraries have seen a shift in purchasing from mostly print to mostly electronic. Although Carleton University Library (Ottawa, Canada) has experienced this shift, it had continued until recently to work within the confines of an organizational structure based on a print purchasing model. This paper will describe in detail the restructuring of the Library's collections and technical services departments to better meet growing electronic demands. Changes included dedicating more staff from print resources to e-resources, changing a librarian position to focus specifically on collections assessment, and shifting budgets to manage growing e-resources more efficiently. The authors will explore accomplishments and hurdles that needed to be overcome, cite lessons learned in making organizational shifts, and make some cautious predictions about future changes.
Consolidation processes, involving synaptic and systems level changes, are suggested to stabilize memories once they are formed. At the synaptic level, dendritic structural changes are associated with long-term memory storage. At the systems level, memory storage dynamics between the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) may be influenced by the number of sequentially encoded memories. The present experiment utilized Golgi-Cox staining and neuron reconstruction to examine recent and remote structural changes in the hippocampus and ACC following training on three different behavioral procedures. Rats were trained on one hippocampal-dependent task only (a water maze task), two hippocampal-dependent tasks (a water maze task followed by a radial arm maze task), or one hippocampal-dependent and one non-hippocampal-dependent task (a water maze task followed by an operant conditioning task). Rats were euthanized recently or remotely. Brains underwent Golgi-Cox processing and neurons were reconstructed using Neurolucida software (MicroBrightField, Williston, VT, USA). Rats trained on two hippocampal-dependent tasks displayed increased dendritic complexity compared to control rats, in neurons examined in both the ACC and hippocampus at recent and remote time points. Importantly, this behavioral group showed consistent, significant structural differences in the ACC compared to the control group at the recent time point. These findings suggest that taxing the demand placed upon the hippocampus, by training rats on two hippocampal-dependent tasks, engages synaptic and systems consolidation processes in the ACC at an accelerated rate for recent and remote storage of spatial memories.
We propose a robust polarization rotator based on the mode-evolution mechanism. The polarization rotation in a silicon wire waveguide is achieved by forming an amorphous silicon (a-Si) overlayer and an SiO_2 spacer on top of the waveguide. A strip pattern of a constant width is designed to be etched through the overlayer at a specific angle with respectto the Si waveguide. The asymmetry in the a-Si overlayer affects the waveguide mode by rotating the modal axis. This polarization rotator design is amenable to comparatively simple fabrication compatible with standard silicon photonic processing for integration. The length ofthe rotation section is 17 µm, and the broadband operation is achieved with a rotation efficiency higher than 90% for a wavelength range exceeding 135 nm. A maximum polarization rotation efficiency of 99.5% is predicted by calculation.
In order for computer generated imagery to recreate the characteristic visual appearance of phenomena such as smoke and fog it is necessary to compute the way in which light interacts with participating media. In this work we present a novel technique for computing volumetric single scattering lighting solutions for particle-based inhomogeneous participating media data sets. We seek to calculate volumetric lighting solutions for particle-based data sets as such data sets have the advantage of being spatially unbounded and relatively unrestricted with regard to memory as compared to uniform grids. In order to perform the calculations which are required for computing such a lighting solution, we introduce a novel octree based data structure. We refer to this new data structure as a density octree. The design of the density octree allows for efficiently computing light attenuation throughout the spatial extent. Using our data structure, we are able to produce high quality output imagery of arbitrary particle data sets in the presence of arbitrary numbers of lights.
One hundred and ten English-speaking children schooled in French were followed from kindergarten to Grade 2 (Mage: T1 = 5;6, T2 = 6;4, T3 = 6;11, T4 = 7;11). The findings provided strong support for the Home Literacy Model (Sénéchal & LeFevre, 2002) because in this sample the home language was independent of the language of instruction. The informal literacy environment at home predicted growth in English receptive vocabulary from kindergarten to Grade 1, whereas parent reports of the formal literacy environment in kindergarten predicted growth in children's English early literacy between kindergarten and Grade 1 and growth in English word reading during Grade 1. Furthermore, 76% of parents adjusted their formal literacy practices according to the reading performance of their child, in support of the presence of a responsive home literacy curriculum among middle-class parents.