Peer-to-peer networks are well known for file sharing between multiple computers. They establish virtual tunnels between computers to transfer data, but NATs makes it harder. A NAT, Network Address Translation, is a process which transforms private IP addresses, such as 192.168.2.1, into public addresses, such as 203.0.113.40. The idea is that multiple private addresses can hide behind a single public address and thus virtually enlarge the number of allocable public IP addresses. When an application in the local network establishes a connection to Internet, the packet passes through the NAT which adjusts the IP header and maps an external port to the computer which sent the request. When packets are received from the Internet by the NAT, they are forwarded to the internal host which is mapped to the port on which the packet was received, or dropped if no mapping exists. In this paper, we will introduce you to NAT and P2P, we will discuss the numerous ways NATs use to translate private IP addresses into public ones, we will discuss known techniques used to fix the problem and we will also present how popular peer-to-peer programs bypass NATs. This paper is written so anybody with a reasonable knowledge of networking would grasp the essentials. It is important to keep in mind that the traversal methods presented in this document work for UDP and TCP and require no manual configuration of the Network Address Translator itself.
In this paper, athermal silicon waveguides using bridged subwavelength grating (BSWG) structures are proposed and investigated. The realization of temperature-independent BSWG waveguides for both polarizations is demonstrated numerically and experimentally. SU-8 polymer is used as the cladding material to compensate for the positive thermo-optic (TO) coefficient (dn/dT) of silicon. We investigate the dependence of the effective TO coefficient of BSWG waveguides on both the bridge width and grating duty cycle. The BSWG waveguides have a width of 490 nm, a height of 260 nm, and a grating pitch of 250 nm. Athermal behavior is achieved for both the transverse-magnetic (TM) and the transverse-electric (TE) polarized light for a variety of bridge width and duty cycle combinations. Furthermore, the BSWGs can be designed to be athermal for both TE and TM polarization simultaneously.
Undergraduate collaborative research is highlighted in many university initiatives; how-ever there is a lack of exemplars in disciplines that do not employ the scientific method. “Pop Music Reviews” was an attempt to forge a template for Women’s and Gender Stud-ies. This paper presents a description of the pilot project and provides qualitative assess-ments by the first- and second-year students, fourth-year teaching assistant (TA), refer-ence librarian, and professor. Together, the appraisals indicate that there are two different but equally necessary components for a successful collaborative research endeavour: the structural setting and the social and emotional environment. In both these components, there were weaknesses in the areas of planning and background training. Yet, the benefits as perceived through the experiences of the various participants were significant. Report-ed gains included increased understanding of research processes and applications, en-hanced critical thinking skills, expanded disciplinary knowledge, improved student moti-vation and confidence, greater interest in graduate studies, and the fostering of collegial interactions and mentoring.
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) have been associated with long-term cognitive deficits relating to trauma-induced neurodegeneration. These long-term deficits include impaired memory and attention, changes in executive function, emotional instability, and sensorimotor deficits. Furthermore, individuals with concussions show a high co-morbidity with a host of psychiatric illnesses (e.g., depression, anxiety, addiction) and dementia. The neurological damage seen in mTBI patients is the result of the impact forces and mechanical injury, followed by a delayed neuroimmune response that can last hours, days, and even months after the injury. As part of the neuroimmune response, a cascade of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are released and can be detected at the site of injury as well as subcortical, and often contralateral, regions. It has been suggested that the delayed neuroinflammatory response to concussions is more damaging then the initial impact itself. However, evidence exists for favorable consequences of cytokine production following traumatic brain injuries as well. In some cases, treatments that reduce the inflammatory response will also hinder the brain's intrinsic repair mechanisms. At present, there is no evidence-based pharmacological treatment for concussions in humans. The ability to treat concussions with drug therapy requires an in-depth understanding of the pathophysiological and neuroinflammatory changes that accompany concussive injuries. The use of neurotrophic factors [e.g., nerve growth factor (NGF)] and anti-inflammatory agents as an adjunct for the management of post-concussion symptomology will be explored in this review.
Event-related potentials (ERPs) and other electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES) children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort) emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc.) and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc.) may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in two matched-samples of fourteen lower-SES and higher-SES adolescents. ERP and EEG activation were measured during a task probing selective attention to sequences of tones. Pre- and post-task salivary cortisol and self-reported emotional states were also measured. At similar behavioural performance level, the higher-SES group showed a greater ERP differentiation between attended (relevant) and unattended (irrelevant) tones than the lower-SES group. EEG power analysis revealed a cross-over interaction, specifically, lower-SES adolescents showed significantly higher theta power when ignoring rather than attending to tones, whereas, higher-SES adolescents showed the opposite pattern. Significant theta asymmetry differences were also found at midfrontal electrodes indicating left hypo-activity in lower-SES adolescents. The attended vs. unattended difference in right midfrontal theta increased with individual SES rank, and (independently from SES) with lower cortisol task reactivity and higher boredom. Results suggest lower-SES children used additional compensatory resources to monitor/control response inhibition to distracters, perceiving also more mental effort, as compared to higher-SES counterparts. Nevertheless, stress, boredom and other task-related perceived states were unrelated to SES. Ruling out presumed confounds, this study confirms the midfrontal mechanisms responsible for the SES effects on selective attention reported previously and here reflect genuine cognitive differences.
This study examined the combined influences of national levels of socioeconomic status (SES), social capital, and rights and freedoms on population level physical and mental health outcomes. Indicators of mental health were suicide rates, alcohol consumption, and tobacco use. Indicators of physical health included life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and prevalence of HIV. Using pathway analysis on international data from a selected sample of European, North American, South American, and South Caucasus countries, similar models for mental health and physical health were developed. In the first model, the positive effects of SES and social capital on physical health were completely mediated via rights and freedoms. In the second model, the positive effect of SES on mental health was completely mediated, while the impact of social capital was partially mediated through rights and freedoms. We named the models, the "rights and freedoms gradient of health" in recognition of this latter construct's crucial role in determining both physical and mental health.
This dissertation explores a theoretical foundation for Inuktitut knowledge renewal based on conversations between the author, Tamalik, and Inuk elder, philosopher, mentor and teacher Aupilaarjuk from the Kivalliq region in Nunavut. Relational accountability and the relational dynamics of knowledge in Inuktitut contexts are examined, along with Inuktitut methodological principles. The dissertation is presented in two parts to honour two different languages, epistemologies and intellectual systems. Part O n e is in Inuktitut syllables; it comprises the recorded conversations between the author and Aupilaarjuk in May of 2010 and represents the importance of Aupilaarjuk's narrative as a whole, legible or not to the academy. Part T w o is an exercise in bridging between two diverse intellectual traditions that coexist within Canada - Inuktitut indigenous and western academic, and a case is made for their coexistence within the academy. Together the two parts of the document work to support a framework for understanding Inuktitut knowledge traditions and the value of intercultural dialogue in addressing questions of knowledge production in arctic and Inuit-related affairs.
The lineup lake area (NTS 115G/1114) comprises 12 map units of polyfolded upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks correlated with assemblages of Yukon-Tanana terrane. Mapping at a scale of 1: 20,000 was carried out, resulting in the identification of four generations of late Permian (?) to late Cretaceous folding and two generations of late Cretaceous, or younger, faulting in the lineup lake area. Well exposed Cal marble marker units constrain the orientation and geometry of map units in this structurally complex area. In the southern part of the lineup lake area the map pattern is controlled by F2 long limbs that are moderately to steeply S dipping. In the northern part of the lineup Lake area, Sdipping or gently NW-dipping F3 limbs control the map pattern. South-dipping, brittle normal faults crosscut folds and are in turn cut by a network of nearvertical, dextral strike-slip faults striking 305°-335° and with 500- 2000m spacing. The steep faults are inferred to be related to the Denali fault and were coeval with regional strike-slip faults that cut the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleocene Ruby Range Batholith to the south. South-dipping, brittle normal faults crosscut folds and are in turn cut by a network of nearvertical, dextral strike-slip faults striking 305°-335° and with 500- 2000m spacing. The steep faults are inferred to be related to the Denali fault and were coeval with regional strike-slip faults that cut the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleocene Ruby Range Batholith to the south.
INTERESTED in finding limits - personally, of others, of society - and pushingbeyond them, to explore realms outside of the common and the comforting todeepen and explore experiences, thedark side of architecturesearches for theedges, the margins of the accepted spaces of society and tries to transcend themin an attempt to find new experience and space outside of the spheres of everydayspace.The dark side of architecture,then, may be understood as the spaces opposingor outside of the ordinary, conventional or normal spaces; taboo space, findingthe limits of the accepted reflects not only rules and regulations, but also reflectssociety, all other spaces and the morals and values of society - spatially and ingeneral.The dark side of architectureis an attempt to find these spaces that arceither on theboundaryor just beyond, in hope of procuring the characteristics andpossible potential contained within the unfamiliar, strange and unknown space.This thesis is a speculation of the 'dark side', beginning with an attempt to definethe connotations and implications of the so called,dark side of architecture.alongside a journey to attempt to locale dark space: where it resides, its forms,functions and inhabitants. To locate and situate dark architecture is an attemptto explore the potentials and eventually - if possible - apply these characteristicstowards a design of, or for, the dark side of architecture.
Contemporary society's expectations have evolved beyond theircurrent environments. In order to reinvigorate our surroundings, wemust re-evaluate the standard method of creating architecturalspace, from process to product. In an attempt to achieve thisreformation of design, inspiration can be drawn from conceptsand practices in contemporary theatre since the 20th century.Theatre and architecture share a common goal of communicatingto their audience. The existence and success of both these artforms vitally depends on the human body.By paralleling concepts in contemporary theatre and architecture,this thesis will explore the integral components to creatingholistically experiential architectural space. The correspondingdesign project is devised from an accumulative synthesis of thetheatrical concepts examined in this text. These architecturalmoments consider potential social and spatial relationshipsencountered by the audience in an interactive and sensuallystimulating environment, and in turn how their response can havea transformative effect on that space.
In the late summer of 1884, Canada's Governor General received a request from the W arOffice to engage several hundred "Voyageurs" for service with the British army in the Sudan.The voyageurs from Canada were required to pilot boats through the cataracts of the Nile,so that General Garnet Wolseley's relief expedition could reach General Charles Gordon,who was besieged in Khartoum, by a self-proclaimed prophet called the Mahdi. Newspapersand documents reveal that many in Canada considered this request to be a great complimentto the country. It was the first time that Britain had requested a body of Canadians for animperial expedition. S o m e Canadians thought the expedition would be an opportunity forCanada to play a bigger role in the empire. Others in Canada expressed ambivalence towardsthis particular group of m e n as their representatives on an imperial campaign. The NileVoyageurs were civilian, mostly working class men, with a proportional over-representationof Aboriginal and francophone men. The largest group of m e n was from Ottawa, many ofw h o m were shantymen w h o worked in the timber trade.This study introduces and examines a large body of letters written by the Nile Voyageurs onthe expedition, as well as a range of other newspaper items and manuscript documents. Thestudy is a labour history, a history of settler-aboriginal relations, an imperial history, ahistory of Canadian identities, a study of the militia, a series of regional histories and a studyof politics, society and culture in the 1880s. This episode provides a glimpse of colonialCanada before the Northwest rebellion and the full implementation of the Indian act. Itexplores Canada's imperial identity on the eve of the Imperial Federation movement, theCongo Conference and Britain's new expanded empire. The project introduces a criticaldiscourse method based on the theory of recognition articulated by Axel Honneth. Honneth'stheory of recognition will be used as the basis for the textual analysis, it will inform a critiqueof the cultural struggles in various social situations and it will also serve as the basis for anunderstanding of public memory as intersubjective recognition across time.
There are two main contributions to knowledge presented in this thesis: (1) an efficient Clinical Data Repository (CDR) with a novel data storage format, and (2) new neonatal mortality risk estimation models that use data analysed in real-time from the CDR.The CDR collects, stores, and retrieves clinical data in real-time. It uses a novel hybrid Entity-Attribute-Value (EAV) storage format that is faster, uses less complex queries, and allows the data to remain in its original data type while using the same amount of storage space as other popular storage formats. The CDR can collect and store data from patient monitors and laboratory results in real-time using only free open-source tools, and is compatible with industry standard protocols. The CDR design accommodates the fast-changing medical domain, and supports the addition of new attributes automatically. Private patient information is segregated automatically from raw research data before it is stored. This provides the ability to give researchers and physicians access to the real-time research data without further processing, and without violating patient privacy.We developed novel real-time neonatal mortality risk estimation models using Decision Trees (DTs) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) that met criteria for clinically useful results (>60% sensitivity, >90% specificity) for individual patients. Results showed that mortality models using summary data (data from admission until up to the first 48 hours after Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admission) provided, on average, the highest sensitivity and specificity with the least number of false positives, exceeding the performance criteria set by our clinical partners mentioned above. The DT model produced the best results on average (sensitivity=75%, specificity=96%), while the AN N model produced lower but still clinically useful results (sensitivity=68%, specificity=97%). Three attributes were found to be most important to estimate the risk of mortality during the first 48 hours after NICU admission: lowest serum pH, lowest blood pressure, and lowest heart rate.In the future, a prototype of the real-time Clinical Decision Support (CDS) system framework should be implemented with the ability to generate intelligent alerts and warnings from medical events as they occur, such as when the risk estimation for a patient changes significantly.
This study applies a critical multimodal discourse analysis to three television commercials: 1) Neutrogena ‘Healthy Skin Liquid Makeup’, 2) Colgate ‘Advanced Total whitening toothpaste’ and 3) Danone ‘Activia probiotic yogurt’. In order to gain further insight into how advertising discourses can shape body image ideologies, this study sets out to investigate how television commercials construct a relationship between health and beauty. This research includes analysis of both the visual and the verbal modes, drawing on Systemic Functional Linguistics, Critical Discourse Analysis, Multimodal Discourse Analysis, and Inter-mode relations. The findings are discussed in terms o f the theories of healthism discourse and aestheticization of everyday life. In addition, Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, lifestyle, taste, capital, and field will be used to discuss how the health-beauty consolidation is recursively produced and reproduced by society and its members. The results of this study suggest that there is a colonization o f the advertising non-health related products under healthism discourse, and this type of advertising is cooccurring with ideologies of the body beautiful resulting in an unprecedented consolidation between the concepts o f health and beauty. These findings underscore the need for media literacy and hence the importance o f practicing and also teaching discourse analysis approaches such as SFL, CDA, and MDA that are designed to expose ideological underpinnings.
The central argument of this dissertation is th at Canadian reality is conditioned by government data and their related infrastructures. Specifically, that Canadian geographical imaginations are strongly influenced by the Atlas of Canada and the Census of Canada. Both are long standing government institutions that inform government decision-making, and are normally considered to be objective and politically neutral. It is argued that they may also not be entirely politically neutral even though they may not be influenced by partisan politics, because social, technical and scientific institutions nuance objectivity. These institutions or infrastructures recede into the background of government operations, and although invisible, they shape how Canadian geography and society are imagined. Such geographical imaginations, it is argued, are important because they have real material and social effects. In particular, this dissertation empirically examines how the Atlas of Canada and the Census of Canada, as knowledge formation objects and as government representations, affect social and material reality and also normalize subjects. It is also demonstrated th at the Ian Hacking dynamic Looping Effect framework of ‘Making Up People’ is not only useful to the human sciences, but is also an effective methodology that geographers can adapt and apply to the study of ‘Making Up Spaces’ and geographical imaginations. His framework was adapted to the study of the six editions of the Atlas of Canada and the Census of Canada between 1871 and 2011. Furthermore, it is shown that the framework also helps structure the critical examination of discourse, in this case, Foucauldian gouvemementalité and the biopower of socio-techno-political systems such as a national atlas and census, which are inextricably embedded in a social, technical and scientific milieu. As objects they both reflect the dominant value system of their society and through daily actions, support the dominance of this value system. While it is people who produce these objects, the infrastructures th at operate in the background have technological momentum th at also influence actions. Based on the work of Bruno Latour, the Atlas and the Canadian census are proven to be inscriptions that are immutable and mobile, and as such, become actors in other settings. Therefore, the Atlas of Canada and the Census of Canada shape and are shaped by geographical imaginations.
Nudism emerged in early twentieth-century Germany as a corrective to the ill effects of industrialization. As recreational nudist clubs took root in Canada after the Second World War, their members engaged with contemporary concerns about mental health, juvenile delinquency, and sexual deviance. They promoted nudism as familyfriendly and as a means to realize the widely shared parenting objective of creating psychologically healthy, well-adjusted citizens.Nudism in postwar Canada was an embodied practice intended to re-make the mind. Canadian nudism both challenged and reinforced postwar social norms. Committed to dissociating nudity from sexuality, nudist clubs created space for men, women, and children to socialize in the nude. Nudists argued that the acts of going nude and looking at the nude bodies of others satisfied natural curiosity and loosened the hold of social taboos. Despite their transgression of taboos around nudity, nudists sought social respectability. In particular, they embraced the hetero-normativity of mainstream Canadian society, and argued that their practice strengthened rather than undermined marriage and family life.This dissertation explores local club operations, nudist representations of the body through photography and pageants, and tensions surrounding new forms of social nudism that emerged around 1970. It situates the body as a site of both social regulation and resistance, and explores the negotiations of a group of otherwise ordinary Canadians as they grappled with the nature of the body in modern life.