This article explores the complexities of informal urbanisation at the metropolitan periphery of Mexico City through a case study of Ampliación San Marcos, a former agricultural area on the city's south-eastern periphery. While the physical annexation of small towns and their environs is a common feature of Mexico City's growth, the settlement of Ampliación San Marcos is more accurately described as a two-pronged process involving the extension of a nearby pre-Hispanic town and the expansion of Mexico City itself. The case study shows that the rural periphery of Mexico City is no tabula rasa upon which urban growth simply 'takes place', rather, settlement processes are influenced by longstanding in situ social relations and practices related to property. The paper highlights the importance of considering the relationships among social relations, property and informal settlement for understanding the complexity of metropolitan growth and change in large cities such as Mexico City.
Over the years the sprawl of the suburbs has been heavily criticised and many solutions and alternatives have been proposed. However in spite of the apparent problems, the image of the single family detached home has been idealized and is aspired to in our culture. This thesis proposes that the suburbs have remained the primary form of housing in North America because ofthe psychological fulfillment that we draw from the ownership of a house in the suburbs. This ideal image of ownership is not tied to the suburban house, but to the underlying psychological satisfaction that we draw from certain elements of the detached suburban home. By deconstructing and reinterpreting the psychological functions that the suburban home performs, it is possible to design an alternative to the detached suburban home which can satisfy our desire to own in the same way as the ideal suburban image of ownership.
The Modern condition is that of disconnect; of the individual and the material, the body and the mind. This disassociation can be seen with specific reference to the loss of the 'craftsman', and the loss of a phenomenological connection to material reality . Historically, water as a material is laden with spiritual connotations as a giver of life. Within modern society water has lost a connection to it's 'magical essence', it is but a fluid from a tap to a drain. Water exemplifies the disconnect between the post-modern body and mind.This thesis proposes an Architectural Illinx which addresses this disassociation through the phenomenology of water. The Illinx, is defined by Callois is a form of play which temporarily disrupts perception and creates moments where the individual may question their mental pre-conditions and ostensibly their society. The Illinx is an instillation spanning five pedestrian blocks along Sparks street in Ottawa's downtown core. Moments are created and transformed through the propensity of water. Water as a material will transform itself from space to space until its final decent into the earth.This thesis explores how architecture might create an emotional connection between the body and mind, through a phenomenological approach to materiality. This intimacy, which relies on the experience of the human body and mind as one, constitute a framework for an emotional experience of Architecture.
Substantial evidence suggests an important role for environmental factors in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Specifically, numerous studies indicate that agricultural/industrial chemicals, particularly pesticides, can damage dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, leading to DA deficits and motor impairment. Within the present thesis, we assessed the neurodegenerative and functional effects of the herbicide, paraquat, and determined if its effects would be augmented in the presence of another environmental toxin, namely the fungicide, maneb. To this end PQ + MB did additively provoke neurodegeneration of nigrostriatal DA neurons and motor disturbances, as indicated by reduced open field exploration. Interestingly, however, these behavioral and neurological consequences were observed in mice obtained from Charles River but not identical animals from Jackson laboratories.Given the mounting data suggesting that neuroinflammatory factors mediate neuronal loss in PD, a second component of this study assessed the potential contribution of the cytokines, interleukin-10 (EL-10) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) to paraquat induced neurodegeneration. To this end, mice genetically deficient of IL-6 were greatly resistant to the neurotoxic effects of paraquat. However, central administration of either IL-6 or EL-10 also attenuated the neurodegenerative, as well as the neuroinflammatory (as indicated by diminished microglial density), consequences of both PQ + MB. Thus, EL-6 and IL-10 administration appears to have neuroprotective effects against pesticide toxins. Yet, the fact that inhibition of the cytokine from birth (at least in the case of EL-6) was also neuroprotective, raises the possibility that protective compensatory changes might occur in the absence of the cytokine at developmentally critical times. Taken together, these data further our understanding of how the complex interplay between environmental insult exposure, early life history (e.g. place of breeding) and presence of inflammatory factors (e.g. cytokines) might shape the evolution of PD.
The fabrication and mechanical testing of thin CYTOP membranes is explored for implementation with surface plasmon waveguides. A membrane supported gold strip allows for the propagation of Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons (LRSPPs) and functionality as a biochemical sensor. The fabrication of 25nm thick gold waveguides on thin (400nm) CYTOP membranes is described. Critical process steps include the CYTOP spin and curing procedure, metal lithography for forming the waveguides and wafer passivation during membrane release. Mechanical properties of the CYTOP membranes were experimentally determined through application of the bulge test. The extracted value for Young's Modulus was 1.4±0.2 GPa and residual film stress was 30.8±1.8 MPa. Narrow (200μm) membranes were observed to be able to withstand over 30kPa of differential pressure without failure.
This thesis examines the rise and fall of satellite radio primarily in Canada, but focuses on the U.S. situation when relevant to the study. To date, there has been little academic research done in the area of satellite radio, as it is a relatively new technology. This thesis is grounded in the theory of 'soft' technological determinism, stressing both the importance of technological and social factors in the implementation of any new technology. It comes to the conclusion that satellite radio never became an economically feasible product as it failed to compete with an already-well entrenched terrestrial radio market. The bulk of the digital market was taken over by what this thesis terms as the iRevolution (outlining the Apple technologies and digital/Internet radio options). Several factors surroundings its release and development by the respective companies led to it being introduced into an already-saturated market
This thesis attempts to engage fair trade discourse at the level of practice; a complexity of motivations and invisibilities, that revolve around the cultural and symbolic associations tied to fair trade coffee consumption in the social space of local coffee house. Space is also negotiated through labour practices. The theories discussed unpack labour spaces negotiated through coffee consumption. This thesis revealed the complexity of social interactions and labour relationships that connect fair trade coffee within a of topography social practices. Fair trade coffee practices attract a certain social class of consumer who understands and values coffee's symbolic position in their daily lives. A double-shot of espresso is extracted for a medium latte but its consumption, social capital, and geographical orientations are combined with ethical considerations and symbolic capital to give it cultural value. This analysis of fair trade coffee, and its symbolic position among customers, revealed a series of deliberately unrecognized social practices and positions required to support specialty coffee consumption in a Canadian city.
The fall of the Soviet Union has resulted in a long and painful transition period for the former Soviet republics. Whereas initial prognoses were usually optimistic, the reality has proven that the consequences of the transition are bleak. Severe unemployment, underemployment, poverty and desperation are a daily routine for the majority of the population. The mystification of the West as a safe haven usually 'pushes' the desperate people out of their home countries in search of a better future. This essay analyzes the phenomenon of unprecedented wave of human trafficking in the former Soviet republic of Moldova and the main 'push' factors that act as catalysts for illegal migration and subsequently, human trafficking. The essay argues that human trafficking is a direct result of the transition period and the retreat of the Moldovan state from all spheres of life. The main causes of human trafficking in Moldova are the nature of its economic transition, its anomic society, and the return to traditional gender roles.
This research paper was conceived to fill a void in the literature surrounding the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam. It seeks to counter the restrictive narrative offered by the museum's official publication, Anne Frank House: A Museum with a Story by examining what stories are (and are not) being told, from the history of the House itself through to the use of photographs and artefacts within the recently renovated space. Drawing extensively on the museum's official publications, as well as the author's onsite visits to the museum in 2007, it concludes that there are multiple stories and interpretations that can only be understood by analyzing the museum as a space in which narratives and objects are presented.
The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works was established in 1886 as the world's first multilateral copyright treaty and still acts as the cornerstone of international copyright protection today. This dissertation covers Canada's history with the Berne Convention from 1886 to its last revision in 1971. Canada quietly joined the Berne Convention in 1886 as a British colony before attempting to denounce the treaty in 1889. Canada would have been the first country to withdraw from the Berne Union, and fears that such an action would destroy the nascent copyright union led the British government to use its Imperial control to prevent Canada's withdrawal. Canada eventually joined the Union as a full-fledged signatory in the 1920s. Canada's relationship to the Berne Convention continued to be conflicted, however: Canada refused to implement the 1948 revision of the treaty and was largely disengaged from the Berne Union up to the late 1960s. Debates in the late 1960s and early 1970s regarding the place of developing countries within the Union then sparked Canada's reengagement with Berne Union activities, although Canada did not accede to the most recent 1971 revision of the Berne Convention until 1998. The path of Canadian international copyright has been, in part, a product of the norms, institutions and policies of Canadian foreign relations. Canada's history with the Berne Convention can be viewed as the struggle of a former British colony to find a place within the international system - a struggle to project an image of Canada that accommodated the desire to be engaged in a community of the most powerful nations while also reflecting the reality of a country that was a net copyright importer with a relatively small creative industry. Canada's international copyright policy was used as a vehicle to project an image of Canada to the international community - to portray Canada as a British dominion, a sovereign country, a good international citizen, a developed-and-developing country, and a middle power.
Imagine a world where every conceivable data about our surroundings is readily available for analysis making human life drastically different from what we know it today. This is not an unrealistic concept and its implementation lies on the creation of a network of ubiquitous sensor nodes powered by an energy harvesting system. This thesis explores the challenges in creating such systems. The system level components in a basic power harvesting system are given, with each components function and issues briefly explained. Energy sources are then visited and the available power from such sources is discussed. The report then explores the topics of power management and storage technology for harvesters. A case study involving the design of a power harvesting system using radiowaves is then presented. The RF harvester built has a sensitivity of -13 dBm, an efficiency of 14% and a simulated operating distance of 10 metres. Built in standard CMOS technology, the system is cost effective and compares favourably with reported RF harvesters in literature.
In the modern era, changing perceptions of space and place and external intrusions into local space and culture have been theorized as weakening ties between people and the places they live in. Improvements in transportation and communication have enabled this process. Sociologist Anthony Giddens (1990, 1991) describes the phenomenon as "disembedding" and considers it a hallmark of modernity while geographer Doreen Massey (1994) describes an increasing "disruption" of local spaces occurring over time.This dissertation provides empirical evidence to support those theories. It examines the changing "sense of place" from 1894 to 2005 in two Canadian metropolitan daily newspapers: the Toronto Star, independent for most of the period under study, and the Ottawa Citizen, owned by a series of national chains since 1897.The results show a significant decline in local content and the priority it is given in both newspapers over the 112-year study period. Content analysis was used to compare articles from all sections of the newspaper between three time periods: the Victorian (1894-1929), the Professional (1930-1970), and the Corporate (1971-2005).While the quantity and priority of local news declined significantly in both newspapers after 1970, the decline was much sharper in the chain-owned newspaper. Furthermore, disappearing local content was replaced almost entirely by national stories in both newspapers, with the chain newspaper displaying a much greater increase in national content. The phenomenon replaced many stories that imparted a local sense of place with ones whose sense of place was national.Three possible reasons for this increase in national content after 1970 — which is the study's major finding— are suggested in the conclusion: the threat of Quebec separatism, rising corporate influence on newspaper priorities, and a gradual process of spatialization that appears to favour the national and the global over the local.This study relies heavily on Barnhurst and Nerone's (2001) theories about how the form of news structures its messages, and its results support their finding of increased corporate control of news since 1970. Other theories of representation are also examined in an effort to understand how newspapers create and shape a sense of place.