The key question being addressed in the study is the degree to which demand for literacy instruction exceeds supply for various levels of instruction and types of programs. Using data available from Employment and Immigration Canada I asked the following three questions:A "What is the extent of demand for basic literacy skills development programs as expressed by illiterate persons in Canada through waiting lists for instructional programs?B Is there a relationship between the demand for services and the program model, skill level, intensity (measured in hours per week), duration or size.?C Are there significant barriers to the development of waiting lists as an expression of demand? What other evidence of demand is there?A data set in which 332 programs providing services to 53,000 clients responded to the questionnaire was used. Of these programs, those offering 10 hours or less of instruction per week had on average waiting lists amounting to 33% of their capacity. Those offering more than ten hours of instruction per week maintained waiting lists in excess of 48% of their capacity. The length of time spent waiting averaged 2.3 months for less than ten hours of instruction and 3.4 months for 11 or more hours of instruction.When the institutional code is taken into consideration the excess in demand for instruction is considerably higher for community based programs over 10 hours per week than for school based ones [75% excess in demand for C.B. compared to 30% excess in demand for school based] . Within the school coding the part-time programming is in relatively higher demand with an excess of 45% relative to the 30% 10 hr+ figure. This trend is reversed for the community based programs were the demand for longer programs is twice that for the under 10 hr. group.Multivariate regression was used to test the validity of a model generated from the available data. The results indicate that program variables do correlate with measures of expressed demand although specific items were not easily interpreted given the available data.Substantial problems existing in the reliance on waiting lists as the primary measure in assessing demand are discussed. These include a lack of consistent waiting list recording practices and theoretical objections to their use. Qualitative measures of demand are also evident. Most notable of these is the trend toward the use of community based approaches by institutions. This corroborates a key finding of the regression. The degree to which the capacity of service providers is utilized (100%) is also indicative of a strong demand.These issues should be explored to a greater extent.
Ridesharing, for the purpose of this study, refers to two or more people regularly travelling together to and from work by car. It includes carpooling, where each person takes a turn to drive his/her car and gives a lift to the other(s).Ridesharing has the potential of increasing the person-movement capacity of the existing transportation system by carrying more people in fewer vehicles. As such, it offers the chance to extend the use of existing transportation systems in ways that increase their efficiency while reducing the need for additional vehicles and roadway capacity.Despite the growing interest among transportation professionals to adopt strategies and actions aimed at increasing the vehicle occupancy rates, little effort has been expended to understand the concept of ridesharing. The objective of this study is to a establish a better understanding of the ridesharing mode by studying the characteristics of ridesharers and identifying the factors that influence ridesharing propensity when making a journey to work.The main findings of this study are that ridesharers have high levels of education and car availability; make long but regular work journeys; work in large organizations; and choose to rideshare for financial reasons. In addition, social requirements and irregular working hours are the major deterrents to ridesharing. A model was developed to predict the commuters choice between ridesharing and driving alone. It indicates that travel characteristics are good indicators and predictors of the choice between driving alone and ridesharing. Furthermore, it identifies commuters with long commutes and low levels of car availability as the target populations for ridesharing.
This paper explores the use of images of the divine as female by ecofeminist thealogians to imply an understanding of reality which unites spirituality with physicality and positively values both women and nature. The use of these images is intended to challenge the patriarchal inferiorization and exploitation of women and nature. It is used to suggest a non-patriarchal reconceptualization of the female self and to connect human being with physical processes of nature. The image of the divine as female, then, is used to suggest a fundamental inclusion of women and nature into our understanding of reality. More particularly, it is used to suggest that the interests and integrity of both women and nature must be included in our reconstruction of ethical guidelines. Ecofeminist thealogy, thus, sees the exploration and use of these images as a means of politically challenging the exploitation of women and nature.
This study was designed to examine psychological characteristics along with epidemiological factors of steroid use among bodybuilders, runners, and tae kwon do participants in both competitive and recreational conditions. One hundred and thirty nine male athletes participated in this study which employed a 3 x 2 factorial design involving paper and pencil questionnaires. Subjects anonymously completed a series of psychological inventories measuring body-image disturbance (e.g., body size distortion and drive for bulk), drive for thinness, bulimia, as well as other psychological characteristics including self-esteem, depression, maturity fears, and perfectionism. In addition, the incidence of steroid use, and participants' attitudes toward steroids were evaluated. Results indicate bodybuilders exhibited the most liberal attitudes toward steroids, highest incidence of steroid use, lowest self-esteem, and most amount of body-image disturbance. Furthermore, bodybuilders reported significantly higher scores on perfectionism, ineffectiveness, and traditional eating disorder indices such as bulimia and drive for thinness than runners and kwon do participants. The data indicate that steroid-using bodybuilders possessed a similar psychological profile to individuals with eating disorders characterized by extreme body-image disturbance, maturity fears, feelings of ineffectiveness, and moderately low self-esteem. Moreover, it appears that both populations engage in dangerous methods of physique enhancement such as steroid use among bodybuilders, and a myriad of purging techniques among eating disordered individuals. Results were discussed in terms of comparing the psychological profiles of eating disorder patients and bodybuilders who use steroids, and the resulting physical and psychological implications.
The psychometric reliability and discriminant validity of a computerized, self-report personality interview was assessed. The subject sample (N=100) consisted of male and female students from a university introductory psychology course, employees from a general hospital and volunteers from a metropolitan community. Subjects completed the Computerized Personality Disorder Interview (C-PDI) on two occasions separated by an interval of one week. Diagnoses were compared with scale score means. Kappa coefficients for diagnosis ranged from .10 (Avoidant) to .78 (Schizoid). Test-retest correlation coefficients for scale score means ranged from .74 (Obsessive Compulsive) to .90 (Schizotypal and Borderline). Males were significantly higher than females for the Schizoid and Narcissistic scales (p<.01). The C-PDI discriminated between subjects with psychiatric, substance use/abuse, and family psychiatric histories. The advantages of a dimensional system of classification for personality disorders which uses scale scores are discussed.
In the late 1970's and early 1980's, research in reinforced asphalt pavements was revived from earlier failed attempts with the introduction of high strength plastic reinforcements termed "geogrids". Since then, many more grids have been introduced into the market. These grids, made of polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene, and fibreglass, are produced in a wide range of strengths and configurations. With this large influx of new grids, engineers are faced with the increasing problem of "when to use the grids, which one to use, and how to use it".Therefore, this thesis is based primarily on addressing some of these questions by evaluating a few grids currently available and determining which characteristics must be considered in their selection and use. Similarly, the problem of evaluating reinforced asphalt concrete slabs in the laboratory has been addressed as it was found that standard testing methods are non-existent. Finally, new compaction equipment producing high quality asphalt is introduced for the compaction of both unreinforced and reinforced asphalt.The research carried out in this thesis identified the most important parameters affecting the reinforcing mechanisms provided by geogrids. Specifically, it quantifies the relationship between the geometry of the grid and the interlock mechanism. Also, compaction procedures and installation methods have been found to play a major role in the performance of reinforced asphalt pavements.
This thesis explores sexually explicit representations of the 'lesbian' as a site where lesbian identities are contested and 'communities' are imagined into being. It examines these made-in-Canada representations in relationship to state discourses, feminist discourses, the academic dialogue of 'queer theory' and racist discourses and speaks to the following questions: what kinds of lesbian identities are being created in Canada? In what contexts? And to what end?Representations produced in this country are found to challenge fixed notions of gender, sexuality and race; resist paternalistic state discourses and insist on the fluidity gender and sexuality. Strategic use is made of the sign 'lesbian', but a multiplicity of sexual discourses evoked and spoken to by these images and their creators resist foreclosure, suggesting a new 'style' of imagining community. Various discourses create the conditions for the appearance and erasure of lesbian sexual representations which, in their turn, effect new discourses on sexuality.
The research work presented in this thesis was designed to provide an understanding of the short and long term cracking behaviour of concrete slabs reinforced with Tensar polymer grids.The objectives of the short term test program were to study the effectiveness of polymer grids in controlling the cracks in concrete slabs due to restrained shrinkage. The experimental program included testing of ten large scale rectangular concrete slabs 120 x 600 x 2000 mm in size under controlled humidity and temperature. Test results showed that the use of polymer grids in concrete slabs have practically eliminated any cracks due to shrinkage.The objectives of the long term test program were to study the effectiveness of polymer grids in controlling the cracks in concrete slabs as well as the effect of the control of cracks on corrosion, stiffness and ultimate strength of such slabs. The experimental program included testing of four large scale rectangular concrete slabs 100 x 500 x 3200 mm in size subjected to severe conditions of loading and unloading, wetting and drying, and to deicing salt applications. Test results showed that the use of polymer grids as a secondary reinforcement in concrete slabs significantly reduce cracks width. The maximum crack width was reduced by 30%. The loading test results after nearly 3 years of salt exposure showed an increase of the ultimate strength of 8% and a significant increase (up to 63%) in the initial stiffness.
The paper analyses the social construct of masculinity in light of marxist and feminist theory. Also, there is an analysis of masculinity within the context of ritualization, as found in warfare and other forms of violence. Participant observation is used within the context of a group of men to determine the factors that shape their masculinity. Similarities between the social phenomena of war and the more individual manifestations in the group are found. They include, among others, ritualization of activity, emotional isolation, emotional restrictiveness, shame of any deviation from the norm, and the need to control oneself and one's environment.
The purpose of the present study was to examine emotional distress and relational factors in adolescent children of chronic pain patients. The study examined the role of several variables in the mediation of adolescent emotional distress including the gender of chronic pain patients and their adolescent children, parental depressive symptomatology, level of disability, marital adjustment, hostility,and the parent/adolescent relationship. A total of 38 chronic pain patients and their adolescent children (age 12-17) agreed to participate. The sample was divided into 10 mother/daughter dyads, 10 mother/son dyads, 9 father/daughter dyads, and 9 father/son dyads. Results revealed adolescent emotional distress to be similar to that found in previous literature. Adolescent children of chronic pain patients reported relatively low levels of emotional distress. Low levels of emotional distress were supported by interviews with the adolescents. Analyses of gender differences revealed depressive symptomatology to be significantly greater in female adolescents than in male adolescents. Results also revealed that gender of the parent was related to adolescent emotional functioning. Correlations suggested that mothers' chronic pain was less positively related to child emotional functioning, whereas fathers' chronic pain was more positively related to child emotional functioning. Suggestions for future research are discussed.
The program developed for this thesis will analyse, design and detail orthoganally framed, simple, structural steel connections for various bolted/welded combinations using single or double angles as connectors on beam_to_beam and beam_to _column type connections. Existing steel connection analysis/design software does not sufficiently consider all aspects of strength and geometric design. These deficiencies are addressedwithin the program. Various data files including slip coefficients, electrodes, bolt data, wrench clearances and end distances have been created. All relevant resistances will be compared to the corresponding applied forces and the ratios will be listed in an engineering report along with a three dimensional representation of the designed connection. Erection clearances, electrode angles and fabrication preferences will be included in the geometric design and any connection specified by the program will be constructable. Costing information and moment-rotation relationships have been collected and organized for future incorporation, and file conversion research has been initiated to provide the required file formats to produce the AutoCAD shop drawings. The assumptions, limitations and design procedures are all listed within the thesis and are referenced where applicable. Although the program has been developed as an independent module, it has been designed so that it can be readily incorporated into a design/analysis/fabrication program for steel structures with the development of a few new graphic interface screens.
Robert Davies Defries was this country's first professionally trained public health administrator. He is probably best known as the co-creator, associate director, and later director of the University of Toronto's Connaught Laboratories and School of Hygiene. The Connaught Laboratories and the School of Hygiene were founded on a threefold premise of providing affordable preventive medicines to the public, researching new medicines, and training future public health administrators. Consequently, this organization came to have a profound effect on the formation of Canadian health care policy. One of the many public healthissues that it directly influenced was mass immunization. Through its co-operation with the City of Toronto's Department of Public Health, Ontario's provincial health department, and other local health departments,the School of Hygiene and Connaught Laboratories effectively orchestrated the first successful mass immunization campaign in Canada against the disease diphtheria. The strategy used in that campaign paved the way for future mass immunization programs and a shift in health policy focus towards disease prevention. Defries was someone who wore many hats. The roles of administrator, educator, activist, scientific researcher, social planner, editor and writer all contributed to his long and illustrious career. This essay focuses on the early life and career of R.D. Defries (1889-1936 approximately), and explores how his passionate religious idealism and public health convictions combined to shape his views of society and himself
Structural and geotechnical designs of some civil engineering structures require a prediction of potential frost heave. The present study is a novel approach which combines the experimental technique and numerical modelling to predict frost heave more accurately.The experimental laboratory technique was designed to split the cooling of the soil sample into temperature gradient and the frost penetration rate. It has been shown that the frost heave is largely dependent on the temperature gradient and the frost penetration rate. All the experimental results from a series of testswere integrated in a database.A one-dimensional numerical simulation has been adopted to use this database for more realistic prediction of frost heave. The resulting experimental-numerical integrated frost heave prediction model was validated against examples of laboratory and field experiments. This new approach is shown to have great potential for use in engineering practice for road construction.
Soviet economists first became interested in the concept of Export Processing Zones in their search for a means to facilitate foreign investment in their economy. The Russian conception, most commonly expressed as Free Economic Zones (FEZs), was rapidly viewed as a "pre-market mechanism" that would serve to enhance economic growth, expand foreign economic relations and facilitate the transition to a market economy. This thesis examines the FEZ'S from a Soviet/Russian perspective, utilizing primary Russian sources, in an attempt to determine possible reasons for the failure of the zones to progress as originally conceived. To accomplish this, a political-economy approach is employed to analyze the key issues underlying the adoption and adaptation of the FEZ concept, as well as the areas of greatest contention surrounding the establishment of the zones in the former USSR. It is concluded that the FEZ reform effectively remained stuck in the planning stages for a number of inter-related factors. The failure of the central authorities to reach a consensus on the form and functioning of the zones in their country inhibited attempts to produce clear and comprehensive legislation. As was the case with many other reforms of the period, the ongoing struggles between diverse political, economic, ideological and national/ethnic interest groups greatly influenced the way in which the zone concept evolved. These conflicts, together with the resulting rapid pace of reforms and events, played a large role in the ultimate failure of the zones to move far past the planning stages.
This project is an exploration of how the Carleton University School of Social Work can translate its new Educational Equity Mission Statement into practice, by focusing on the support needs of new students. A Participatory Action Research framework was chosen to identify methods which would change the process and content of orientation to the School. This involved the participation of second year students in a process which enabled the group to implement action plans. The implemented action plans included: providing information on resources and knowledge about structural inequalities; linking graduate students with undergraduate students to encourage them to explore their own self-determination; providing documentation regarding the history of the School, student activism and the histories and cultural perspectives of marginalized people; and providing a buddy list to encourage contact between students. The overall evaluation of the process found that the lack of time and resources proved to be problematic throughout the project. The facilitators and second year students felt satisfied with having welcomed the new students in an empowering way. The new students confirmed that all the information provided was found to be useful. Final recommendations include how students can continue to work towards structural change.
This study examines the strategic decision making processes of thirty-five international Canadian companies. It explores in detail the influence of multiple criteria on decision outcomes. The results of this study demonstrate that, although other factors may influence the decision process and in turn its outcomes, it is the clarity of objectives that shape the decision outcomes. By using criteria as a measurement of achieving a decision's objectives, decision makers can evaluate the success or failure of the decision process. These criteria appear to have a major influence on decision outcomes. Based on the interview results, the study provides a framework which explains the decision making process. It is, in fact, the importance of this framework that reflects the significance of this study. The study also examines other factors, such as complexity arising from multiple criteria in the decision process and information as a requirement for dealing with criteria, both of which may have some influence on the decision outcome. Generally, the findings of this study support the hypotheses concerning the influence of multiple criteria on decision making outcomes. In this way, the study indicates a new direction for further studies, especially for those companies doing business across cultures and in varying circumstances.