This study of mostly British and German but also Dutch, and American initiatives to end the war by negotiation before Hitler invaded the West examines Chamberlain's exploration of a settlement with the German resistance. Chamberlain expected an immediate economic collapse of Germany and Hitler's replacement by right-wing conservative/military elements. Their failure to dislodge Hitler should not detract from the significance of the negotiations and the light they throw on both Chamberlain's policy of appeasement and war aims. During the Phony War, Chamberlain's minimum conditions for a settlement increased as his faith in the German resistance's ability to depose Hitler and form a trustworthy Government diminished.
The aim of the present study was to examine the role of physiological and cognitive factors in eating patterns of bulimic women; more specifically, the effect of a preload food on subsequent eating behavior. Twelve bulimic women participated in this study which employed a repeated measures design. On each trial subjects were exposed to one of three pudding preloads (varying in macronutrient content) or no pudding preload. Subjective ratings of hunger after the preload administration and amount of cookies eaten in a later "taste test" were measured. Between groups differences with respect to the amount of cookies eaten were not statistically significant. Subjective reports of hunger, prior to the taste test were statistically significantly greater in the no preload condition than the other preload conditions. Similar hunger ratings were reported after the high carbohydrate pudding was consumed. Statistically significantly less hunger (greater satiety) was reported after ingestion of the low calorie and high fat puddings than after no pudding preload. The results were interpreted as lacking support for the cognitive disinhibition theory as it applies to bulimia. It was concluded that satiety mechanisms of bulimic women may be impaired as a result of restrictive dieting. Areas for future research were outlined.
The role of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor in the development and expression of kindled seizures was examined in vivo . Male Wistar rats were pretreated with either vehicle (VEH) or the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Subsequently all rats were given an acute injection of one of the three clonidine doses (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 mg/kg), an alpha-2 agonist, or saline 30 minutes prior to each kindling trial.The 6-OHDA pretreatment facilitated the rate of kindling and was associated with stronger than normal seizures. Clonidine (0.1 mg/kg), on the other hand, had an anticonvulsant effect on the development of kindling in both the VEH and 6-OHDA pretreated rats and attenuated the strength of the motor response in the latter group. These antiepileptic effects of clonidine, in the 6-OHDA rats suggests that many alpha-2 receptors reside postsynaptically.These results suggest an important inhibitory role of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the development of kindled seizures.
The work represents the first attempt to begin to identify, assess and bring together the primary sources available on women in music in Canada. It is hoped that its content will provide an adequate introduction and basic building block for any future research on the subject. Because music in Canada is largely a transplantation of European musical attitudes, it is necessary to first closely examine the European example of women in music. By presenting several European and American primary sources, it is shown how women were greatly restricted from becoming professional musicians when the Renaissance ideal of European feminine musical accomplishment was solidified by the bourgeoisie in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It is further indicated that after women won their right to higher musical education in the late nineteenth century, their musical achievements, excluding singing, continued to be measured by a double standard that developed out of European feminine musical accomplishment. It is illustrated that these European feminine musical attitudes have been transplanted into Canada but that significant differences exist. For the sake of undertaking a more complete introductory examination of the position of women in music in Canada, the thesis contains an exploration of the position of women in Canadian Amerindian and Inuit cultures. In the research studied there is no strong indication that Canadian Inuit or Amerindian women receive as high a status or as many music-making opportunities as men. It is found that the effects of the environment and the varying difficulty of the procurement of food in Canadian Amerindian and Inuit culture seem to greatly determine status and the resultant gender roles in music-making. To conclude, resolutions are proposed to help bring about full opportunity for all of Canada's women musicians.
Kathleen Blake Coleman a.k.a Catherine Ferguson Willis (1856-1915) arrived in Canada a destitute Irish immigrant in 1884. To earn her living and support her two Canadian-born children, she juggled the androgynous and womanly aspects of her new identity to become "Kit", of the Toronto Daily Mail/Mail and Empire. "Kit", the pioneer woman journalist, was an adventurous traveller as well as a fashion expert, a war correspondent as well as a motherly advice-giver. She was also a mother-journalist trying to balance her domestic duties and her own literary ambition. Her experiences of life made her quick to sympathize with others, but her liberalism had its limits. She believed in the intellectual and economic equality of the sexes and helped other women succeed in journalism. But for professional and personal reasons, she remained aloof from the women's movement and did not advocate suffrage until it became a respectable cause.
This research focusses on an illustrative example of the performance of a model footing which is located on a sloped fill, in particular, the sloped fill containing a geogrid type reinforcing layer. A series of experimental investigations are conducted to determine the effectiveness of the geogrid in improving the performance of the sloped fill.The results of the model studies show that the load carrying capacity of a sloped fill structure can be increased by over 5 0 % , by incorporating a Tensar SS2 Geogrid reinforcement at a depth of between 0.5 and 0.9 times the width of foundation. Certain preliminary finite element studies are also conducted using a scheme which accomodates the nonlinear response of the soil. The results of these numerical studies also show similar trends. Experimental results indicate that the use of geogrid reinforcement at the above depth can also increase the initial stiffness of the sloped fill by over 30 % . Five different types of geogrids were used in the experimental studies. The experimental studies further suggest that the strain gauge instrumentation is well suited for laboratory investigations.
Margaret Laurence and Alice Munro are two of many Canadian women writers who, during the last three decades, have chosen to write novels of female development. In A Bird in the House, The Diviners, Lives of Girls and Women and Who Do You Think You Are? Laurence and Munro depict strong, young heroines growing up in repressive, small-town Canada, and they show how patriarchal society restricts the spiritual and creative development of young women. This thesis looks at four major works of fiction by two of Canada's foremost authors in an attempt to identify common characters, themes, events and structures, and to formulate a model of the modern Canadian female Bildungsroman.
Women's role in wartime has been largely overlooked. To remedy this situation, an examination is made here of the Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire and its contributions to the First World War. As a patriotic women's organization, the Order combined imperialism and the cult of true womanhood to give ardent support to the war effort from within women's proper sphere. As volunteer war workers, Daughters of the Empire made a major contribution of time, material, and funds to help win the War. After first providing background on the organization's formation and its tremendous growth over the War, this thesis examines the lODE's war work. Responding to war issues, looking after medical and comfort needs overseas, caring for dependents and returned soldiers on the homefront, and instilling loyalty through an educational campaign were the main areas of activity. With the range and intensity of this activity, the First World War may have been the greatest period in the lODE's history.
Factors influencing the effectiveness of cognitive strategies for analgesia were assessed using a cold pressor pain task with 96 subjects. Subjects rated pain during baseline and post-treatment exposures to the ice water pain stimulus. Between trials, subjects in four groups were trained in the use of a cognitive coping strategy. Training consisted of brief practice in strategies involving: a) imaginal reinterpretation of the pain stimulus, b) imaginal distraction from the pain stimulus, c) non-imaginal reinterpretation, or d) non-imaginal distraction. Two additional groups were given: e) a suggestion to expect analgesia but no coping strategy, or f) no treatment (i.e., equivalent waiting period only). Subjects also rated their expectancy for post-treatment pain immediately before and after training. Administration of the four coping strategies resulted in equivalent attenuation of pain ratings during the posttraining trial. Subjects in these four groups also reported equivalent expectancies for analgesia. Subjects in the expectancy control group expected analgesia, but reported no significant change in pain rating from baseline to the posttreatment trial. No treatment control group subjects neither expected nor achieved any significant change in their pain ratings. Regression of expectancy scores and posttest scores for absorption in cognitive strategies on pain reduction scores demonstrated that expectancy and absorption in the cognitive strategies both contributed significantly to reported pain reduction. In addition, scores for expectancy and for absorption in the cognitive strategies correlated significantly with each other. These findings are contrary to accounts of cognitive analgesia which have attributed the effectiveness of cognitive strategies solely to expectancy. The data suggests that expectancy is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for analgesia. Expectancy may interact with the extent to which a subject utilizes a cognitive coping strategy, thereby influencing the effectiveness of that strategy. Strategy enactment is also a critical factor, but there are no overall differences in the effectiveness of strategies which differ in terms of imagery or degree of sensation acknowledgement.
The present study investigated the relationship between the asymmetry of the nigrostriatal dopamine system, amphetamine-induced rotation and spatial ability. In addition, the influence of the gonadal hormones on this relationship was investigated. Half of the 40 female and of the 40 male Wistar rats were gonadectomized while the remaining underwent a sham operation. The rats were tested on two consecutive weeks for their rotational behavior following administration of amphetamine (1.2 mg/kg). Spatial ability was measured on a modified Lashley III maze for half of the animals. The remaining animals were tested on the Morris Water maze. Followingcompletion of the tests of spatial ability, the animals were sacrificed by decapitation and their brains (right and left striata and right and left frontal cortices) were dissected, and later assayed for their contents of DA and NE by the fluorometric method. Gonadectomy was found to increase striatal DA levels, and to influence performance of male rats on the Lashley III maze. The relationship between spatial ability and the asymmetry of the DA system was task-specific since a correlation was found only with performance on the Lashley III maze and not on the Morris Water maze. The results also showed that the relationship between rotation and spatial ability was influenced by the sex and the treatment of the animals.
Using a cross-sectional sample of ninety-six first, second, fourth, and sixth grade children the development of metacognitive skills was traced in the social problem-solving domain. Metacognition refers to an individual's awareness of his/her cognitive processes and an ability to regulate these processes. The theoretical and empirical framework of metacognition in the physical domain was used to develop two measures of social metacognition: The Social Metacognitive Interview and The Social Metacognitive Scale. Five sub-skills: Stop and Think; Problem Definition; Planning; Checking and Monitoring; and Sustaining Effort were used to organize both the Interview and the Scale. Three stages of metacognitive awareness were conceived theoretically to explore the developmental pattern of social metacognitive skills. The findings of the present lent empirical support to the theoretical model. The results indicated that children's awareness and regulation of their social cognitions were related to age. The results suggested that the various metacognitive sub-skills appeared at different stages of development. The development of social metacognitive skills was discussed in relation to the development of perspective-taking (social cognition) skills. It was shown that the development of perspective-taking skills precedes the development of social metacognitive skills. Finally, there were no sex differences in the development of social metacognitive skills. The results suggested that a metacognitive framework formed a relevant basisfor exploring social problem-solving deficiencies and social maladjustment. Based on the present findings directions for future research were discussed in the final analysis.
The following is an examination of Blake's ideas of Nature, Law, and Liberty, and how these ideas developed during the course of his writing life. I argue that as Blake's understanding of these ideas changed, so did the form and scope of his poetry. By abandoning the idea that the poetry forms a clear, consistent canon of material, and by removing such terms as 'mystic' and 'prophet' to describe the poet himself, I also argue that one can trace the major changes in his ideas of Nature, Law, and Liberty in the Illuminated Books.The first chapter establishes Blake's basic definitions of Nature, Law and Liberty, and compares them with the Natural Philosophers, particularly Rousseau. The second chapter covers the years between 1790 and 1794, and discusses 'The French Revolution', 'A Song of Liberty', and America, as 'prophecies', Blake's term for political poetry. Chapter Three distinguishes prophecy from myth, and shows how Blake tried to consolidate his ideas into one epic poem, Vala. It also discusses The Book of Urizen, as a first draft of that myth. Chapter Four discusses Jerusalem as an attempt to rework the myth into a Christian context and also shows how Blake's ideas became governed by the form of the poetry. Finally, I include a brief discussion of 'The Everlasting Gospel', as an example of how Blake tried, after Jerusalem, to reestablish his old definitions of Law and Liberty to the figure of Jesus. This also serves as a recapitulation of the themes previously discussed.
Until now, decisional research, and decisional models, have focused on response criterion, response bias, and stimulus discriminability as the sole factors that motivate decisional performance changes. The findings of the current study suggest that, in addition to these 'antagonists', the effects of stimulus difficulty context must also be viewed as a factor that induces systematic performance adaptation. A general review of the response time-probability literature provides a basis for the evaluation of recent decisional models in terms of their ability to account for known performance changes. Finally, two studies involving comparisons of horizontal visual extent were undertaken in order to quantify the effects of decisional context. In experiment 1, it was found that response times were longer, and accuracy and confidence higher, for 'target' pairs embedded in a difficult as compared with an easy context of remaining stimulus pairs. In experiment 2, after establishing baseline performance on 'target' pairs embedded in a relatively easy subset of remaining pairs, subjects were shifted to a context with a preponderance of very difficult remaining pairs. Response time increased and confidence decreased for the 'target' pairs for subjects working under a payoff scheme emphasizing accuracy. However, response time, confidence, and accuracy decreased following the context shift for subjects working under a strict 450 msec deadline. The results are discussed with respect to the predictions of Vickers' (1970;1979) adaptive model of decision; the one model found to be sufficiently comprehensive to describe dynamic and adaptive decisional processes.
The lateral loads imposed on a building structure by a major earthquake may, at times, produce an overturning moment that equals or exceeds the available overturning resistance provided by gravity loads. In such a case, unless the foundation has been adequately anchored to the underlying rock or soil, parts of it may experience a transient uplift causing the building to rock about its foundation. Uplift is expected to reduce the level of seismic response of structures. Such beneficial effect has been observed during past earthquakes in a limited number of cases. The present study is related to the response of steel framed buildings founded on spread footings and subjected to recorded earthquakes. The study is aimed at examining the effect of important system parameters on the uplift response. These parameters include: the slenderness ratio of the building, the magnitude of live load, the vertical component of earthquake motion, type of framing (simple or rigid joints), and the flexibility of the underlying soil. The results of the study show that rigid frame steel buildings with practical levels of live load to dead load ratio are unlikely to uplift even under severe earthquakes. Braced frames, on the other hand, do have a tendency to uplift. The results show that in braced frames, uplift, in general, reduces the base shear and column axial forces. However, the effect on the lateral displacements is not always beneficial. Depending on the characteristics of the building and the earthquake, uplift may either reduce or increase the displacements.